WELCOME TO MY PAGE‎ > ‎Laica Zirbu‎ > ‎

Level II -A



QHENKHATNAK: QONG LAM THU
1. KHIHHMUHTU (Post-position)
Hmin lole Hminsawng dungah a um ih a hmai-ih um hmin, lole hminsawng pawl kha
ziang a si ti khihhmuhtu qongfang kha Khihhmuhtu ti a si.
tqn: in, ah (ih), thawn, kiangah, tlunah, …
Phun tampi in qhen a theih ih a hnuailam vekin qhen a si.
1. Tuahtu Khihhmuhtu
2. Tuartu Khihhmuhtu
3. Neitu Khihhmuhtu
4. Telve Khihhmuhtu
5. Hmanmi Khihhmuhtu
6. Tikcu Khihhmuhtu
7. Hmun Khihhmuhtu
1.1 Tuahtu Khihhmuhtu
Hmin lole hminsawng dungah a um ih cuih hmin lole hminsawng kha ‘tuahtu a si’ ti a
khihhmuh ruangah Tuahtu Khihhmuhtu a si. Cu pawl cu ‘ih, in, cu, cun’ tla hi an si.
1. Hi ca cu sayagyi Van Kyi ih nganmi a si.
Mirang in – This book is written by sayagyi Van Kyi.
2. Keimah in ka tuah.
3. Jesuh cu Bawi a si.
4. Zumtu cun thunphan an per lo.
Hi ‘ih, in, cu, cun’ pawl hin a hmai ih ‘Van Kyi, Keimah, Jesuh, Zumtu’ pawl hi ‘ngantu,
tuahtu, situ, thuphan perlotu’ an si ti a khihhmuh.
Simfiangnak
Atlunih tuahtu khihhmuhtu pawl hi Mirang in an nei lo. Kawl le Chin in kan nei. A
hmai-ih hmin le hminsawng thawn kom lo ding.
1.2 Tuartu Khihhmuhtu
Hmin lole hminsawng dungah a um ih cuih hmin lole hminsawng kha ‘tuartu a si’ ti a
khihhmuh ruangah Tuartu Khihhmuhtu a si. Cu pawl cu ‘cu, hi, kha, khi’ tla an si.
1. Zawl Tling in Ngam Bawm cu a duh zet.
2
2. Amah hi ka uarzawng a si.
3. Na nu le na pa kha va qihzah aw.
4. Khi inn khi ka inn a si.
Simfiangnak:
Atlunih khihhmuhtu pawl hi Mirang in an nei lo. Kawl le Chin in kan nei. A hmai-ih
hmin le hminsawng thawn kom lo ding.
1.3 Neitu Khihhmuhtu
Hmin lole hminsawng dungah a um ih cuih hmin lole hminsawng kha ‘neitu a si’ ti a
khihhmuh ruangah Neitu Khihhmuhtu a si. Cuih qongfang cu ‘ih’ a si.
1. Hlawn Dawh Thang ih inn ah ka feh.
Mirang in – I go to Hlawn Dawh Thang’s house (or) I go to the house of Hlawn Dawh
Thang.
Simfiangnak:
‘in’ hmai ih qongfang kha hmin lole hminsawng a si ahcun ‘ih’ hi Neitu Khihhmuhtu a si.
Mirang ih –’s lole of vek.
1.4 Telve Khihhmuhtu
Hmin lole hminsawng dungah a um ih cuih hmin lole hminsawng kha ‘telvetu a si’ ti a
khihhmuh ruangah Telve Khihhmuhtu a si. Cu pawl cu ‘thawn, tla, khal’ tla an si.
1. Ka naupa thawn Yangon ah kan feh.
2. Thang Thang le Sang Sang tla an tel.
3. Sui Sui khal puai ah ka hmu.
Simfiangnak:
Amah lole anmah lawng siloin midang pawl hnenah an telve thu sim tikah telvetu a
khihhmuh ruangah Telve Khihhmuhtu kan tinak a si.
1.5 Hmanmi Khihhmuhtu
A hmai-ih hmin le hminsawng kha ‘hmanmi a si’ ti a khihhmuh ruangah Hmanmi
Khihhmuhtu a si. Cu pawl cu ‘in, thawn’ tla an si.
1. Funghreu in uico ka thawi.
‘in’ hin thawinak ih hmanmi funghreu a khihhmuh.
2. Kianghrol thawn a feh.
‘thawn’ hin kianghrol hi hmanmi a si ti a khihhmuh.
3
1.6 Tikcu Khihhmuhtu
A hmai-ih hmin kha tikcu caan a si ti a khihhmuh ruangah Tikcu Khihhmuhtu ti a si.
Cu pawl cu ‘ah, in, ihsin, tiang, hrawngah, sungah, hlanah, hnu, …’ tla an si.
1. Kum 1976 ah ka suak.
2. March thla in a sat a thok.
3. Tui kum ihsin Laica siar ka paih ngaingai thlang.
4. Nazi 4:00 tiang tlawngkai a qul.
5. Tukum sungah mithi an um hrih lo.
6. Hmaizarh (kar) hlanah i pek tengteng a qul.
7. Zarhte hnu cun a ngah nawn lo.
Simfiangnak:
A hmai-ah hmin a um le Tikcu Khihhmuhtu a si. Cuih tikcu hmin pawl cu ‘kum, thla,
ni, zarh, nazi, tlawngkai ni, …’ pawl hi an si. Cu pawl thawn ngankom lo ding. Cu pawl
kha tikcu a si ti khihhmuhtu a si. A dangte’n ngan ding.
1.7 Hmun Khihhmuhtu
A hmai-ih hmin kha hmun a si ti khihhmuhtu qongfang pawl kha Hmun Khihhmuhtu
ti a si. Cu pawl cu ‘in, ah, tiang, ihsin, parah, tlunah, hnuaiah, kiangin, sirah, …’ an si.
1. Falam in Hakha ah ka tlawng.
2. Kalay ihsin Tamu tiang mawtaw ka to.
3. Kan khua kiangin tiva tumpi a luang.
4. Tipithuanthum parah lawng tumpi thawn khual kan tlawng.
5. Inn tlunah vate an fu.
Simfiangnak:
A hmai-ah hmin a um ih cuih hmin cu hmun pakhat a si ti a khihhmuh. Ahrek cu a
hmai-ih hmin siloin cuih hmin sirhsan in hmun cangcopmi khal an um.
tqn: Thingkung hnuaiah ka cawl. (thingkung hi hmun a si lo na in cuih thingkung sirhsan
in a hnuai kha hmun a si).
4
2. PEHZOMTU (Conjunction)
Qong kalhmang ih sidan bangrep pahnih maw, catluan pahnih maw, sullam bangrep
pahnih maw, a pehzomtertu qongfang kha Pehzomtu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: le, ih, sehla,
curuangah, … pawl an si.
Pehzomtu hi phunhnih in qhen a theih.
1. Felfai Pehzomtu
2. Komkhawm Pehzomtu
2.1 Felfai Pehzomtu
Qongfang hnaihnoklote’n aw khat suak, qhen theih lole komcop si lo, pehzomtu
kha Felfai Pehzomtu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: ih, le, cun, maw, la, … pawl an si.
1. Ka baang tuk ih tuante’n ka it.
2. Ka nu le ka pa in in duhdawt zet.
3. Phunhra ka on cun mi hnenah ka tel thei ve.
4. Nangmah na feh ding, maw keimah sawn ka feh ding.
5. Ca qhate’n zuam aw la laksawng na ngah ding.
2.2 Komkhawm Pehzomtu
Felfai pehzomtu thawn a hnaquan a bangrep na in aw tam deuh suak, komcop ih
pehzomtu cangmi qongfang kha Komkhawm Pehzomtu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: ahcun, lole,
siloin, tikah, ruangah, zawngah, hmansehla, curuangah, sikhalsehla, cuticun, ziangahtile,
ziangruangahtile, cutilocun, … pawl tla an si.
1. Na ngiar ringring ahcun na ngah leh ding.
2. Nangmah lole keimah feh a qul.
3. Qawng siloin qong, khuapi siloin khawpi ti in ngan ding a si.
4. Bazaar na feh tikah i rak lei ceem ve aw.
5. Ka nat ringring ruangah ka thau thei lo.
6. Hna ka quan ding a ti, hmansehla a quan ngaingai lo.
7. Mithi kan nei, curuangah khualtlawn ding ka quul.
8. Sual ih man cu thihnak a si; Sikhalsehla Pathian ih laksawng cu kumkhaw nunnak
a si.
9. Na nu le na pa upat aw; Cuticun na lam a tluang ding.
10.Pathian cu thangqhat uh; Ziangahtile Amah cu a qha a si.
5
3. THINQHAWNGTU (Interjection)
Kan qih, kan lau, kan mangbang le kan lungawi ruangah tumtahnak um lo le rinlo
paral ih kan ausuakqheumi qongfang kha Thinqhawngtu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: Ei, Ehei, Ai,
Maw Pathian, … ti pawl an si.
1. Ei! Ziangti’n so khua na sak?
2. Ehei! A fehsuak ngaingai ding maw?
3. Ah! Nangmah lawng maw a ra thleng thei?
4. Aize! Cu vekin na va qong ngam sapbai.
5. Aizaw! Nang lo cun ziangti’n so a can thiam ding.
6. Elaw! Ka phan vek cekci in a cangsuak ee.
7. Heih! Zinkap naihtukin feh hlah.
8. Hei! Thing par kai vivo hlah.
9. Maw van law!
10.Maw Pathian aw!
4. KIMTERTU
Qong kalhmang pakhatkhat kiangih um, amahte-ih sullam nei lem lo, a kiang um
qongfang ih sullam kimtertu qongfang kha Kimtertu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: asi, aw, seh, he,
salai, a, ko, …, adt pawl an si.
Kimtertu hi a tanglam vekin qhen a theih.
1. Hmin Kimtertu
2. Tuahrel Kimtertu
3. Fiang Kimtertu
4. Lang Kimtertu
5. Khihhmuh Kimtertu
6. Pehzom Kimtertu
4.1 Hmin kimtertu
Hmin kiangah a um ih cuih hmin ih sidan fiangdeuhih kimtertu qongfang kha
hmin kimtertu a si. Cu pawl cu: Rev., Dr., Salai, Pu, Pi, Pa, Nu, kuk, boih, te, kolh, neu,
…, adt pawl an si.
1. Salai Ram Duh Thang
2. Pu Kur Bung Bel
6
3. Nu Ai Thang Vel
4. Thang kuk, No boih, Cung te, …
Simfiangnak: Hi qongfang pawl hi hmin pawl fiangdeuhih kan theihtheinak dingah a
um lo sung ta hmanmi qongfang pawl an si.
4.2 Tuahrel Kimtertu
Tuahrel kiangah a um ih cuih tuahrel ih sidan fiangdeuhih kimtertu qongfang
kha Tuahrel Kimtertu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: aw, hlah, fawn, ko, sawh, maw, pei, ta, uh, law,
… adt pawl an si.
1. Qih hlah, napi’n zuam aw.
2. Ka thei ko.
3. To seh. To seh law.
4. Kan va feh ta.
4.3 Fiang Kimtertu
Fiantertu ih kiangah a um ih cun Fiantertu ih sidan fiangdeuh ih a kimtertu
qongfang ‘a’ kha Fiang Kimtertu ti a si.
1. Hi nu hi ka duh asi. Hi nu hi ka duh, ti khal in catluan a kim. ‘Asi’ hi a tel lo khal le
a sullam a kim thotho. Asina’n ‘asi’ hi kimtertu men siloin tuahrel felfel hna a quannak
ah cun akomin ngan lo ding. ‘Amah cu ka pu a si’.
2. Bawhlung leh zuamawknak ah apakhatnak kan ngah.
3. Ahlankhanin rak timtuahawcia aw.
4. Atir ihsin a rak ruat dah lo.
4.4 Lang Kimtertu
Langtertu ih kiangah a um ih cuih langtertu ih sidan fiangdeuhih kimtertu
qongfang kha Lang Kimtertu ti a si. Cu pawl cu: ual, ko, men, … adt pawl an si.
1. A qha zet ko.
2. Ka quan rero men.
3. A mawi zet ual.
4.5 Khihhmuh Kimtertu
Khihhmuhtu kiangah a um ih cuih Khihhmuhtu ih sidan fiangdeuhih kimtertu
qongfang kha Khihhmuh Kimtertu ti a si.
hi tawkah hin, cu tawkah cun, kha tawkah khan
7
1. Kan zung ah cun hnaquan a tam.
2. Kan inn lengah khan rak ret aw.
4.6 Pehzom Kimtertu
Pehzomtu ih kiangah a um ih cuih pehzomtu ih sidan fiangdeuhin kimtertu
qongfang kha Pehzom Kimtertu ti a si. Cu pawl cu:
khaw, maw, …
1. Ca na zuam le khaw na thiam qha ding.
2. Na duh le maw ka lo tuahsak ding.
Simfiangnak
1. Kimtertu qongfang pawl hi a kiangih qong kalhmang qongfang dang thawn kom
lo ding.
2. Kimtertu qongfang pawl hi qong kalhmang dang khal an si caan a um thei.
4. Kimtertu qongfang pawl pahnih pathum umkhawm khal a um thei.
- To seh law.
- A qha zet ko lo maw?
- A mawi tuk ko ual.
- A zoh men cu teh.
5. CANGAN COLH LE HMINSINNAK
5.1 Thusuhnak (?)
Thusuhnak catluan tling ih cemnak ah ? hminsinnak hman a si.
1. Khuitawk in na ra?
2. Zo a si?
3. Rawl na ei zo maw?
4. Ziang na tuah?
5. Ziangruangah na qap?
6. Ziangtikah na thleng?
7. Ziangti’n na ruat?
8. Ziangzat na nei?
9. Ziangtluk na rei ding?
8
5.2 Thinlaunak (!)
Mangbang vansan le thinlau tikih kan qongmi dungah ! hminsinnak hman a si.
1. Aih! A va mak ve.
2. Duhnungza a va si ve!
3. Maw, Pathian!
5.3 Qong Hminsinnak (“ ”)
Mi ih thurelmi, a reltu ih rel vekin ngansal a si tikah “ ” hminsinnak hman a si.
1. Jesuh in, “Keimah cu tuukhal qha ka si,” a ti.
2. Anih cun, “Zo na si, ka lo thei lo,” in ti.
5.4 Qong Tawiternak (’)
Qongfang kan kom tikih thuhmi cafang kan neih tikah kan thuhmi qongfang ai ah ’
hminsinnak hman a si.
Asinain – Asina’n
Jesuh in – Jesuh’n
2009 – ’09
Nu ih ni – Nui’ ni
5.5 Rin Sawng (/)
Thu dangdang pehzom si pakhatkhat sim duh tikih dannak ah / hminsinnak hman a si.
1. Fanu/fapa na nei ding.
2. GA/73/’93
3. 30/1/2009
TUAH DING
1. A tanglam ih Khihhmuhtu hmang in catluan tling ngan aw. Ziangmi Khihhmuhtu
a si ti kha ngan aw.
in, cu, thawn, parah, tla, hrawngah
2. Tahqhimnak ih a tellomi khihhmuhtu a dang pali in ngan aw.
3. A tanglam ih pehzomtu hmangin catluan tling ngan aw.
ziangahtile, sehla, zawngah, le, ih, cule
4. Tahqhimnak ih tellomi a dang pehzomtu pali in ngan aw.
5. Zirmi ih tellomi Thinqhawngtu pathum in ngan aw.
6. Kimtertu na theihmi pali in simbet aw la ziang kimtertu a si ti simfiang aw.
9
QHENHNIHNAK: NUNPHUNG
1. KHUA KAIDAN
Hmunram pakhatkhat ah khua thar kai an duh a si le a hnuailam ih thu pawl hi a
thupimi pawl an si.
1. Ram lawng a si pei.
2. Arcang a keng pei.
3. Aar a khuang lo le a kirsal a quul. A qha lo tinak a si.
4. A dang ram lawng a hawlsal pei.
5. Aar a khuang le a thuhla a qha tinak a si.
6. Rualpi a sawm ih khua a sat.
7. Khua a kai ih, mah le nufa ciar thaw’n an si.
8. Khawkai kum ih a thluntu cu “Saihrempo nampitu” ti ah an ti.
9. Khawkainak hawltu pa cu Lal a si pei.
10. Lalpa cu khuami pawl in siah an pek.
11. Lo hlawh an pe. Fuur hlawh, qhal hlawh ti in.
12. Cipa, sapa, thinghual an ei thluh.
13. Fuur hlawh, qhal hlawh a phunphun cu Siah an ti.
14. Conlam tlainga ah sazang “Lalsa” an pek daan. Sapa an ti.
15. Ramsa kah tikah sazang an pe. Sapa an ti.
16. Khawtlang raithawi ah pek daan cu Sahniang an ti. A meifi, a qaang, a tilzum, a
cuap, a lung, vokhlap. Buh le sa hlei hmuahhmuah inntek an ti.
17. Khual vokthah ah cu ti thotho in pek ding a si.
18. Khawtlang raithawi ah cun mah inn ciar in “Buh teek” khaidan a si.
19. Khual vokthah ah cun Lal in a tirawl a tuang.
20. Vok, sia, caw cu khawtlang in a tuar.
21. Bulpak khual vokthah cu inntek pohpoh in a si.
22. Cui’ khua ah khawtlang in Lal inn sak daan a si.
23. Qhacuang, qhadeuhih sak daan a si.
24. Khaw Lal cu conlam ah siseh, sa-aih ah siseh, zu a thawbik an inter.
25. Adangtein Lalzu khal an bunsak. Zuvoneih an ti.
26. Lal inn cu tlang hmun an ti.
27. Lal inn cu thurelnak, thuqhennak inn ah an hmang.
28. Thuqhenmi hmuahhmuah cu Lal thu tiloin “Khawthu” an ti.
29. Khawthu timi cu zohman in eldan a si lo.
30. Ahleicein Lal ih thu a si bik.
10
31. Lalthu cu eldan a si lo an thuthu a si.
32. Khawtlangthu cu Lalthu a si.
33. Lalthu cu khawthu a si. Cuhrangah, khawtlangthu le hreicawng kau an ti.
**********************
2. ZAWLTLING LE NGAMBAWM
Khua pakhat ah nupinu pahnih cu an fahniangte keng veve in Lo hnaquan an
tlakaw qheu. An faate cu a dangdang ah hlumta in an tan ih hna an quan. Pawhte pek a
cut tikah cun an pahnih pomaw in, an ittlang an tong ringring. Cuih naute ih an hmin
cu Zawl Tling le Ngam Bawm an si.
Zawl Tling le Ngam Bawm cu an duhdawaw vivo, qhenawsal men thei an si nawn
lo. Hmansehla phun u le phun nau thleidanawknak ruangah phun nauta tlangval Zawl
Tling cu phun u a simi fala Ngam Bawm hrangah a tling lo ih an qhenaw ta.
Ngam Bawm cu a tlangval pa thawn umtlang a theih lo ruangah a thin a na tuk ih
a thi. Zawl Tling cu a falanu thih thu a theih tikah tuarharzet hman sehla a falanu ih nu
le pa in an dawn. Ngam Bawm ih kiangah umthiamloin amahte lawng zunngaih qahhla
sak in a tuar rero.
Cu lai-ah Ngam Bawm ih ruak cu tham theih le remtun theih a si lo tikah Zawl
Tling an va ko ih qahhla a hunsak cun olaite’n rem an tungtheisal. Cuih hnuah Zawl
Tling cu an dawipet. Cun, phum dingih an suahpit zawngah sangka ihsin suahpit theih
a si lo tikah a tlangvalpa an ko leh lala ih Zawl Tling ih qahhla a hunsak cun olaite’n an
phumtheisal. Cuih hnu khal ah Zawl Tling cu nautat phah in an tlungter thotho.
Zawl Tling cu zunngaih tuar in a falanu ih thlan parah pangpar a ciing ih patarpa
a kilter. Cuih pangpar cu Ngam Bawm ih thlarau in Sazaw a fial ih zantin a va sih thup
qheu. Zawl Tling in pangpar firqheutu theih duh ah zanvar a kil. Pangpar qot dingih
Sazaw rat kha Zawl Tling in a hmuh tikah a pel ih a kai ngah. Cutikah Ngam Bawm ih
fialmi a si lam kha Sazaw in a sim tikah ka lo thlun ding a ti. Sazaw cun a sianglozet na
in a thlun thotho ih hling le so ziangbangtuk khal pahtlang in Sazaw mei pawk phah in
mithi khua cu a thleng. Zawl Tling cu Ngam Bawm ih inn ah thleng hman seh la mithi
le minung cu duh bangin umtlang a cangthei lo ruangah khunlu lam hoi in le khun taw
lam hoi in an ittlang.
Mithi khua ah cun an tongaw ko na in mithi pawl ih thiltidan le hmuhdan cu
minung pawl thawn an dangaw zet. Sa an dawitlang ih Zawl Tling in Lunghmul a
sawhthatmi cu Ngalcang ah a cang, tikua ah an feh ih Zawl Tling in bawm sungah rua
11
hnah a retmi cu Nga ah a cang, thing an salhtlang ih Zawl Tling in Calreng kung a
sattan ih a phurhmi cu zialpheng hrang thingtlep qhazet ah a cang. Cuticun thilumdan
a danglam tuk ih nuamzetin an um thei cuanglo. Curuangah Ngam Bawm in Zawl
Tling cu minung khua ah tlungkirsal dingin a fial ih hi ti in thu a cah, “Khua na thlen in
arbawh dumte hung that aw la na ihnak tlunah feipi a linglet in hung thlai aw, na puan
lukhuh in hung it aw”, a ti. Zawl Tling khal cu a tlung ih Ngam Bawm ih thucah vek
cekci in a tuah. Zan ah a feipi retmi cu Zawl Tling ih thinhnaka ah a tla ih feipi in a
sunthat.
Zawl Tling a thih cun mithi khua ah a thleng ve ih Ngam Bawm thawn nuamzetin
an pawlkomaw thei. Hmansehla Ngam Bawm ih nu cu a thi ve lala ih an hnenih a thlen
cun Zawl Tling cu a hmu thei lo thotho. Cuticun a nu cun umtlang thei lo dingin a
qhensak lala.
Zawl Tling le Ngam Bawm cu mithi khua khal ah umtlangtheinak caan qha an
ngah lo ruangah phengphelep ah cang in a nu ih qhenbanlonak hmun van ah an zam ih
Arsi ah an cang. An thutiamawkmi cu, “Van arsi ah cang in phiang kum, kum thum dan
veikhat kan tongaw qheu ding maw,” an ti-aw ih tui’ sun ni tiang Van arsi Zawl Tling le
Ngam Bawm cu kum thum dan veikhat phiang kum ah an tongaw qheu.
***********************
3. NUNZIA MAWI
1. A qul hnai lo ah cun hni tam tuk hlah, mi-aa ah an lo ruat pang ding.
2. Lailan ih thusim hmangmi si hi a thatnak a um na’n uar tuk ding a si lo. Lailan
tulnak zawn um le um lo ti ruat ta lo in na qong lailan tukah cun mi ning na hangter
tam tuk ding.
3. Hmaisong neih lo hi thil qha a si na in a caan le hmunhma zohthiam lo ih hmaisong
neihlo tuk cu thuruat hrothrai lo, mifim tuk lo vek kan bangnak caan a um thei.
4. Aw ring tuk in hni hlah, na aw kelte in hni aw la cu cu ngai a nuam bik.
5. Midang kha neltukin umcih tam tuk hlah. An zaang beng le an hngawng kuah khal
va hmang fawn hlah. Hmuhsuam le nautat ah an lo ruat pang ding.
6. Midang ca an siar lai ah siseh, ca an ngan lai ah siseh, va bih le va zohsak hmang
hrimhrim hlah.
7. Palhnak na neih tikah midang parah sual va puh tuk hlah, ngaithiam dil sawn aw la
an lo ngaithiam ding.
8. Mi inn na len tikah nangmah thu in tonak hawl hlah. Inntek ih tonak pek kha hngak
12
aw, cu cu mifim daan a si.
9. Mi in an lo leng tikah hmaipanzetih biak zuam aw la tonak pe hmaisa bik qheu aw.
10.Rualpi thawn nan umtlang tikah mi siatnak va rel tam tuk hlah. Na rualpi in an lo
ning tuk ding.
11.Lam na kan tikah keh le vorh thate’n zoh hmaisa theu aw. Culole Mawtaw le Cycle
in an lo pah pang ding.
12.Rawl na ei tikah na ka kau tukin ang hlah. Rawl na keu tikah khal tleptlep tiah
ringtukin awnter hlah. Cu vek cu mi-aa rawleidan deuh a si.
13.Lakphak na in tikah lakphak khuathai dam ih an hmanmi khengperte in va in hlah.
Cabuai parih lakphak ti for lo dingin an damnak men a si, lakphak innak hai a si lo
ti kha thei aw.
**********************
4. PIPU QONGFIM
‘I’
1. Inn hnakih nuam sawn hmun dang a um lo.
2. Inn hnen qha cu khaw dangih suahsempi unau hnak hman in rinsan an tlak sawn.
3. Inn hnen thawn remawk lo cu khaw thum do hnakin thin a bang sawn.
4. Innsangnu bik ih hmuihmel ah an sungkua dinhmun a lang.
5. Ih hmu cun hmaisong a nei lo.
6. Itthat bum cu qhang a har.
7. Inn hnakin a sungih ummi a thupi.
8. Inn hi tlawng qhabik a si.
9. Inn hnen le lo hnen va to hlah.
Simfiangnak:
1. Inn hi colhdamnak, kan ta rori a si ruangah hmun dang a tluktu a um lo.
2. Hmuhbanlomi le biakbanlomi thawn zianghman tuah a theih lo.
3. Hmuhban ih ral nei ringring, tuahmawh aw thei a si ih a qha lo zet.
4. Nu an poimawh tuk ih an mithmai zoh thiam ringring a qul.
5. Khuitawk hmun, ziang tikcu khal ah ihhmuh a suah hnuhnu cu sup theih a si lo.
6. Thei lo vekih an um hrim ruangah a si.
7. Innsang remawte-ih khua kan saktlangmi hi a thupi in a sunglawi bik.
8. Nundan ziangkim kan zirhawktheinak hmaisabik a si.
13
9. Innhnen, lohnen thawn hmuhbanawk ringring a si ih remawte-ih um thiam a qha
bik.
************
‘K’
1. Kel ek tam: (Tam menmen, zianghman santlai tuk lo, qhathnemnak a nei lo).
2. Ka sen ah muthla ka qih, ka upat in ka pu ka qih: (nauhak thinlung in pawpi,
sahrang qihnak cang kan thiam na’n, pi le pu, nu le pa upa sawn qihzah kan rak
thiam lo).
3. Nauhak khawlak ih a qongdan khi an inn ih a zirmi a si: (Innsang hi thusia
thuqha kan zirnak hmunpibik a si).
4. Kumkhat hrang – fang phunaw; kum hra hangah – thingkung; kum zakhat hrang
– minung kilkhawi aw: (Minung qhate-ih kilkhawi le zirhawk a thupitzia
simfiangtu a si).
5. Ka nui’ thusim lung ning la savom sum su hmu hlah ing: (Nu le pai’ zirhnak thlun
duh lo cu harsatnak a phunphun an tong qheu).
6. Khuaitizu neitu’ n a taw ah tur pai: (Mi qha le qongkam thlum zet vekih langmi
pawl khal thinheng le mitinat an thiam ve).
7. Khual makpa thih le zing ruah sur: (Zing ruah khal hmakhatte ah a han vekin,
khual lamhla ih makpa thi khal theihhngilh a ol zet. Hnaquan le vahsuah a kham
lo an ti).
8. Ka pa thih le kei lian lang: (Hnaquan zuam lo pai’ ro lawng khawm tum).
9. Kaileng cu a kawm ah a lang: (Kaileng kawm a tum le a mu khal a tum. Suahnak,
hringtu nu le an poimawhzia relnak).
10. Kailawn hmaisabik pal ta aw: (Ziang thil khal in bulhram a nei ih cumi vekin a
sangsangte-ih zir ding, quan ding a si).
************
‘L’
1. Lungpi hman lungte in do ta ngai: (Lungpi tumbik khal lungto fate ih a doh lo
mi a um lo).
2. Lungleng khawcuan bang: (Ruahmi hmunhma um lem lo ih to cuahco).
3. Lo lai sia le fa lai sia: (Falai in zianghman ro khawm ding a nei lo).
4. Lenliam fa le sakhi: (Veivah an cak ih thu khal an qhin dualdo thei zet).
14
5. Lengno hawh le huaihang hawh: (Fala note va ter hlah, napin an lo sik pem pang
ding).
6. Leibel le kamsang khual lamhla ta co u: (Leibel le kamsang pawl hi kiangnaite ih
ummi hnakin khuallam hla ih ummi hi thupi deuh le qhasawn ah kan ruat).
7. Laiking puanpi tah tum bang: (Ziang hman quansuahmi le tuahmi ngaingai nei
dah lo).
8. Laiking ih or dum or sen: (Khatlam khatlam ih hminqhat duh, thinlung thleng
dualdo pawl).
9. Lo ram qha le nupi qha: (Innsang hrangah in-ei khop nei ko cawmtu le zohtu an
si).
10.Lungtat in hnah a neih in: (Ziangtik hman ih cangsuakdahlodingmi,
hlawhtlingtheilomi).
************
‘M’
1. Mah porhawk le sakhi ngal: (Zianghman eibartlak khal nei hnai lo, rinsantlak um
lo).
2. Mai’ thu (zu) thaw mai voih thaw: (Midang simmi hnakih mah ih sim le relmi
qha ih ruat).
3. Mise len le tite len: (Mi nauta lennak le tiva fate lian cu reilote ah a cemsal).
4. Mithi bang le bakawh bang: (Rintlak le hmantlak ngaingai an si nawn lo).
5. Mithi thuanthu rel bangin: (Thihni khua ah a thitu ih siatnak hnakin a qhatnak
hlir rel a si).
6. Mi thu cawng ih congkorh: (Mahte ngai thiammi nei si lo, midang thu khal
cawng thiam lo).
7. Min dam le hur dam: (Leiram min damzomi le sual rim ngaingai nunau in mi an
cawm).
8. Mi kut ih rul kaih tum: (Mah ih tuahngamlomi thil qihnung, midang tuah fial).
9. Mar fim le zawng fim: (Fim le feldan tluangtlam lo relnak).
10. Man zuri le zawng mang sia: (Zuri buaibai pawl khi zawng mang sia talbuai vek
fang an si).
**************
15
‘N’
1. Ngalcar khawn le zun rim ngai: (Ngalcar khawn pang le fala zun ngai hi a natdan
a bangaw)
2. Nu le pa, lei le ha: (Lei le ha umtlang khal keu ngah pang can a um vekin nupa
khal remcan lo tikcu a um qheu)
3. Nui’ su hmu bangin: (Zoh ngam lo, ningzahpituk ih kun)
4. Nauhak ningzak mitthli luang, upa ningzak ha lang: (Nauhak an ning a zah le an
qap ih, upa an ning a zah le an hni thung)
5. Nun sung sing lawm, thih hnu kung tlung: (Dam lai le qhat lai can ih midang
kom le tlonciamcotu khal an thih le siat an ton ni ah cun sungkhat naite thotho in
an tuamhlawm sawn)
6. Naute pangpar hman bang: (Naute pangpar hmang cun a dang a hmuh in a
kenlaimi a hlon ih a dang a ngen vivo)
7. Nu thlum Pa al: (Nu le pa hi khatlam khatlam ah qhatnak le duhnunnak an nei
veve)
8. Nam linglet hum bang: (Mah le mah tina-awtheimi thu le quandan dik lo)
9. Nu neh lo, Hlei Tawl vuak: (A tuartu ding si lo, midang parih tuarnak thleng)
10.Nunau hrem lo le thlawhri hai lo: (Nunau le thlawhri cu a luarkai tuk hlanih khap
le haifai lohli a qul)
11.Nupi thih le phartlang bal: (Nu an vung thih cun phar nei lo vekin umdan kim
thei lo in a lawng viarviar thluh)
12.Nung cungih lukhawng rel/nam lo ih lu lak: (Mi ih siatralthluhnak ding tiangih
an parih thu tuah)
13.Na qong in sai ruh a deng kiak: (Sup mi nei lo in mi ih thinnatnak ding qong
hluahhlo men)
14.Nunau ihpi le qhal ti in: (Duh khop ti a um lo, in tam, tuah tam le a duh tam
deuhdeuh)
************
‘P’
1. Pate thin le lo ar ah: (Thu ruatsaulemloin an thin a tawi lohli qheu)
2. Pil her kum le pam tong: (Tikcu can thlengawk zawngah thathnempi lam si lo ih
sunralnak tong)
3. Pangpar mawi hman in hling a nei: (Fala mawite khal kimlonak pakhatkhat an
nei thei)
4. Puan sung zang fil: (Thuthup, midang theih lo ih tuahmi)
5. Pasal thih le luangpi cim: (Pa bik a thih cun innsang zate’n a cimbal thluh thei)
16
5. QONGKHUN( I-P)
I = iang = bang, bangaw, bangrep
ik = poisoi (natsia nei nupi/pasal ih neih ding cu an ik deuh)
ir = ir note, thinhnaka tlun
irh = put, pawt (cirhti a irhsuak)
K = kal = feh
kanto = thingkheng tumpi, zuthlornak ih hmanmi (zalung vek)
kaivabawng = bawngte
kawlthlangva, pualngo = vapual
kawmbawh = kawm nei namte qhabik; sa cannak, tlah launak namte
khingthang = nam, kawlnam, ralnam
kingkawt = ral thahnak nam
kawmzung = khunsir, ihkhun pharlam sang
kawl mimang = kawlbawi, kawl siangpahrang
khawnbawl = Lal pai’ hnaquantu, tawlreltu
kharthuk = mithi khua
khartun = thingpheng phar
khartung = sangka khar
khawng = tluangkhawng, uaraw, zuam
kihnok = zukneng pacang (haizar-hreuthang), zukneng kikawng
kingkuul = sam tomnak dar
khisen = sakhi (khisete)
khundim = pasal nei (thlang khundim), inn pawn suak
L = lamtahnak = thinglamtah, cross
lailungrawn = laikhua, suahseemnak khua
lasi = vancung fala
lianramquan, ban vawr, quancang rel = lo hnaquan
lenlai = falat tlangval lai, no lai
lentawi = nun tawi, san tawi, thi ol
lenpi = tlanpi, rualpi, khukhri khat
lengtenu = fala
lingkin = hnamhri bannak
lu le baan = rinsanmi, hohatu
17
lusam mang lo = ziang dang ruat man loin, mah hman mangawloin
lungkheng = lungtong, lung diriam, duhbik
“Ka lungkheng valcee an um lo Lairawn ah”
lungkhung = napi ih zun ngai, mithi ngai zet, tuar na zet
lungrawn khua = suahseemnak khua
lungriam = lungsi, diriam
lungsia = thinnuam lo, ngaihsia, ninghang
lungkamlo = thin thir lo, thinphang lo, qih lo
lum = it, zau, mu
M = maanla = pat
maanla thlur = pathmoih
maan zu reu = zureu
mang lian = pa, hringtu pa
mang hrin sung = lal hrin, phun u, phun sang
mangbawi = bawi, lal, upa
mangngen = nupi (thaisung, thainu, kakawm)
meen = rem, cei, zutmet, qhatter
merem = it thei, umrem, umnuam
maangpa = hotu, tumbik (sunhrul maangpa)
mitmei = zoh deuh, hawl, ngaihven mitthlurh
mitthii = hahio, zaangraam
maimit sing = mitsing
muang (muan) = rinsan
muangcang = tlaihnu, tuihnu
mumang = mang, zamang
mumaang = qihnung, muthla
N = ngaithlaleng = duhnungza, ngaiumza
naulai = santlaih lo lai, qonqaih lai
nauhno = naute, naute hnoh
ngerhhlei = kaihtam, pat tamnak
ngunzaal = sumtuah, sumdawng (sawzaal, sawhrawl)
ngunzualkual = zungbun, zunghruk
nuar = hreh, duh lo
18
P = paamhrin = farah hrin, nauta hrin, siaqha hrin
paarlai = vaang lai, qhatlai, sanlai
pawkei = pawpi, sahraang
pengtung = zueaat, zu in nak
pheithlai = ke
pol = profet, thuphuangtu, simsungtu
puithiam =lawki daanih raithawi thlacamtu
pursum = midang khua ah fang, vainim, bete tivek va lei
purpaam = ei ding tirawl nei lo, paqha lo
pualva = vapual
puarpok = tenren lo, puarthau hman i hmang
pumpelh = lam tawinak (phiat laan6) .
6. BAWIVUNG, KHUANGHLA, FANGZA HLA
Fangza aihdan
Fangza aih ah vokthau rikhiah, mual lungtong (vokthau a tumsen hminsinnak)
an nei. Sum-tah lungrinmi khawtlang ih an san cin (pom cin) vokthau pahnih a qul. A
tidan cu laam ding vek thotho a si. Sum den zan ah far zu an in.
Ni Khatnak (Tlangvo Ni): Zing ah nu lam pa lam in mithi ar an that veve.
Thlacamdan (Nu lam, pa lam in an sungkhat mithi an theih ban cin sal in an sawm).
Tui’ sunah ka tlangvo ni, ka zubel belkhat, belhra hun suahter uh. Mithi pawl
khuavang hung cang uh, an ti. Vok thah zawngih an thlacam ah van ni kawh a um lo.
Rawl phun kim in khote in an hung ih vokthau sum kim in rawl mal ka lo sawm. Kan
Laipa san in, ka tluangpa san in, rawl ih phun kim in nitin rawl rel ho khaw ka lo hun
vivo ding. Sa codan khal upa a sangsangin zungbokih tahin an zem aw.
Khuate Hla:
1) Sawm rawl tlung law zing khua nui’ nawl in;
Thau lawng vok ih kan van lai runinn dai ah mal kan sawm lai.
2) Mangngen thainu thawi’ ram quan zanvar ka ruah hi;
Fangza sawmkua le cere maurua dah ka khan.
Cere Tlawh Hla:
1) Tite va law, saite va law, lengte nu, saihrem lakah na thla hei khawng lai sing eih,
Kan er zo-awk eih, er laili ung ngei.
19
2) Bual Mang suk fang kan er ah, qhanpi-awk ah;
Ka bih thiam qial so hung eih, fanger eih, kan er zo-awk eih, er laili ung ngei.
3) Ka thih thlak ah thlan thlakah, muali khum ah khum zo ta.
Aw hang-hang-hang-hang eih, e hang-hang-hang-hang eih.
Fangza Hla, Phaileng le Bawi Vung-ih an rak phuah mi:
1. Phaileng:
Keimah lawng kan hmun hai ing pil nim a hmun lem ri lo;
Ram um phuncong thingfu fa ceu khal par na ngai ka ti kim e tin.
*Hi hla hi anmahte lawng lo an feh ih an lunglen Phaileng in an phuahmi a si.
2. Bawi Vung
a) Ram kan tuantlangnak lo, ni le thla rei ruangmang!
Lo ngai ing ee khuahlan Zawl Tling le Ngam Bawm bang.
*Hi hla hi hna an quan tlang thei lo ruangih an lunglen hla Bawi Vung-in an
phuah mi a si.
b) Ka thu duh le ka tum, ram ka quanpi sun ah;
Ni aw van lai zawl ah tla reu lo’n thawng bang hmun.
Fangza aih qumih fala & tlangval laam dingih an sawmawknak Hla:
Ra suak au law lengthai nonawn tla,
Nan inn sungah hrengngen kikawng lut aw khaw nan qih lo maw.
Nuamzetih zanmengin hla thawzetin an sak ruangah an suak lohli lo ih
aveihnihnak an lemnak hla:
Ra suak au law rual u le rual nau.
Tual sum rawn ih kan dir a cu thlang lo maw lai ninu sun ai.
Hla in an sawmaw rero ih suah kham zu an in qheh, fala le tlangval pawl cu an
thuam kim an hru ih akuahawin nu le pa in lam an hruai ih inn sung um fala le tlangval
pawl ih dunglam hel in an lut. A laifang ih luh mai theih a si lo. Fala le tlangval disap thla
an thlen in upa pawl in khuate hla in:
1) Cunghlum van ruah sur thlurmar law na duh te’n!
Khiangqial la aw len sunghno pan ko hnah sah peng.
Khuate hla in an hmuak ih inntual ah nu le pa pawl in an laampi.
2) Sawmfang neih cu e zatlang neih hran ko;
Quan rawk vial in cerlian manzu dan ai uh kan laileng ram khua.
*Lamhruaitui’ hruai in kuahawin nawl detdo te’n an laam. Tual vel phah in khuang
le dar thawn an tlir ciamco ih seki in zu an tulhaw phah vivo.
20
Laam laifang ih Khuate Hla aw sammi:
Lungrawn khuapi tia kim cingcengte’n ra suak uh law;
Vel rawn tual cungah lengrual ton tir ka tuah hi.
*Cere tlawh lai-ah le tlawh thluh ah zupam (zu-ha) an barhaw ciamco qheu.
Khuang Hla
1) Khuang cawi hi duh na ngai ing khaw hluh kho lai ing maw;
Numi le varak khuang phai coih bang a lam tam dendun.
2) Thuro aw e ka thiam cang nu hlah aw,
Qhawn thul zia zo law, kum leh ah hin e a qo qha lai pei e;
Tlangvo zu lawi lang.
3) Phungthluk ih mi nun a zirtu ah Pawi Ceng Hrang si ngai;
Nang le kei e cui’ nun cawng lai sing e vazun saisi hawi.
Atlunih hla pawl hi Puithiam in hla zarh a pekqheumi fing thum pawl an si ih
Puithiam siar lo midang in seh(sak) a thiang lo. Hla zarh an sak hlanah cun hla dang sak
theih a si lo. Hi mi hla fing thum an sak qheh hnu lawng in fala le tlangval pawl in anmai’
hla duh an sak. Inntek khal in an bual sung ruah sur lo dingin dilnak hla hi ti’n a seh.
Sur tuk hlah law cunghlum ih van ruah khal rung han zon nei aw.
Ci in ai lai kan tluang bawi a Sum Thawng cerlianni qha tlang.
Khuate Hla:
1. Khuasim tluangmi tla’n kawng maw ti len ra zoh au law;
Ka no lailio ah khuang pai kai lai ka tuahawk.
Cu mi qheh in Puithiam in hla a seh.
Ra suak au law ka thai ngam Qial Ciang aw cerlian ni sun ai,
Hrang khup le maw hung lai nun cawng si law khawzing ti/nawlin,
Hlapi an sak thluh hnuah hlate an saksal.
a) Qial Ciang le Hlawn Dawh Thang e (vei hnih).
Ninu le thlapa bang len e, khui in nan tong thiam ngelcel.
b) I hlir au law, tluang le kan lai (vei hnih).
Kan hnuai-ah e qhuang va hawi bang khuang cungah ni bang ka tiang.
21
Hlanlai san ih fala le tlangval duhaw si, co-aw thei lo pawl hla an phuahmi Phaileng le
Bawivung hla in an tuahmi pawl:
1) Co in kharh maw khuahlan Zawl Tling le Ngam Bawm bang.
Tleinak ah Tuu vel ning ka nu na lungsir lai tur maw.
2) Ka nu i fial hlah law a qha dang lei thlang khun dim,Ka duh hmen lo ka lenpi Sai
Khar ka or lai kumza.
Bawi Vung:
Mualte suk ih so kan kai cang zongah,
Ka herh e kan lung rawn khua le Lian Mang aan nem.
*Nu le Pa in an fanu an duh lo cingin pasal an neihter ruangah an duhmi ngaizawng
hnenah hi ti’n hla an lehaw.
Phai Leng (Fala hla):
Khun cu va dim hnik lang ka nui’ aanka tuar lo’n,
Nang khal thaisung qhit run tum rang law;
Kum tam cu leng lo le’n.
Tlangval ih a lehsalnak hla:
Khun cu va dim hnik law hrinhniang semno awi-in,
An kal zatlang ton vel biak ah hmun law na annka No Zing.
Bawi Vung (Mipa hla):
Lo qha qulhri bang kan zam hoi lai;
Mi co lai nang siang hla’ng ka tum Ngun Dim aw
Nunau hla:
Ka mang ah an rial qhi le dar zam man ing!
Lian Ci tei’ sung nan dang kai ngai ka ring ri lo.
Mipa hla:
Ka semnak cerhti adangin luang seh,
Ka phun zawn tir hngai lang Qha Hngel aw nang le kei.
Nunau hla:
Nan sak runthang inn ah quan tin rel ning naw!
Kei awi in Dar Sung na nu ka ni ti lang.
22
El riat hla hmang in hla an tuahmi:
Mipa hla: Rak dong au law kai thlia a ni le tla,
Mi mangtling hrin kan runinn hal ngai.
Nunau hla: I dong au law kai thlia ka ni le tla,
Mi hmuise nun nan runinn hal lang.
Mipa hla: Ra tlung aw law sap hnem kan runinn ah,
Quan rel aw law ka nau kai thlia thawn.
Leng khal von thlir ing khaw phun u ngelcel.,
Cincawi kan ruun ah Qial Hngel a dir.
Phun u le phun nau thleidanawk ruangah fala le tlangval a duhaw pawl thuanthu cu
Duh Mang le Dar Dim thuanthu ah kan hmu thei.
Duh Mang in Dar Dim a duhnak hla:
Lengrual hun khor ing khaw lam so ah,
Dar Dim a lo tal an um lo.
Nunau hla: Duh Mang rong aw hmang rawl lo le’n,
Cirh dum fu le ban hmin kua lang.
A farnu pawl ih an nautatnak hla:
Nannih cirh dum fu le ban hmin tliaktluak,
A sang vai hman ei cawk lo le’n.
**********************
23
7. BIAZAI: HOITHLAT LAIRAM
Ka pi ka pui’ seemnak le luphumnak,
An te le fa pawl hrang, Lairam uantlak;
Van ih si-ar qil in vawlei cem tiang,
Leeng law, leeng diahdo law, pualva lungthiang.
Kaiva tinkim, ramsa phuntling ngam hai,
Zo sokhlei, far le bingbipar mawi ai;
Van ih si-ar qil in vawlei cem tiang,
Hraang law, hraang diahdo law, zo thlizil thiang.
Buannel, Zinghmuh, Khawnutum, Lailunpi,
Runva, Qiova le lung pian keng Rihli;
Van ih si-ar qil in vawlei cem tiang,
Luang law, luang diahdo law, zo tidai thiang.
Thluatlang zeltu cumci, thlawh lopil nim,
Lianram riantui’ thlanhri hnultu zilfim;
Van ih si-ar qil in vawlei cem tiang,
Zaam law, zaam diahdo law, zo mero thiang.
Sailung var suak lo hman seh, a cawi hrinhniang,
Sum ih lei thei lo mi rothil man sang;
Van ih si-ar qil in vawlei cem tiang,
Ngam law, ngam ngiahngo law, tlangsang va laileng.
___________________
24
8. LAI LEHNAK
8.1. Kapi Cimu Ka Lo Dil
‘Cimu’ timi cu ‘thlaici’ ti khal in kawh a theih. Laimi pawl hi lo an tuah tikah
thlaici tintian ciing phun pawl an si. Thlairawl ziang pohpoh a thar lole a hmin vete’n a
qhabikbik a ci (a mu) an ret. An thlaici a daih lo pang maw, a qha lo pang maw, a hlo pang
maw, pakhatkhat ruangah ciin ding an neih lo le sungkhat asilole rualpi hnenah an dil
qheu. Thlaici zaran cu leiawk ti a um lo. A lakin an qhenaw qheu.
Cu mi cu nauhak lehnak ah an tuah. Cimu dil lehnak ti ding a si.
Lehdan:
Nauhak burkhat an um. Hotu pahnih an hril. Pakhat cakdeuhbik kha cimu diltu
ah a pakin an qanter. Cule, hotu pakhat in mibur pawl kha a ho. An hotu bik cu qhuam
a pom. A tum lam in asangsangin an tai an pompeh vivo. An man in thlaici diltu cu
mibur hotu bik, qhuam pomtu hnenah a feh ih cimu dil a thok.
Diltu : Kapi...cimu ka lo dil?
Hotu: A cangcang king aw.
Diltu: Hotu thokin a sangsangin an lu a king vivo ih anetabik kha, ‘e... hi
mi a cang bik’, a ti ih a tai pommi cat dingin a dirh ciamman. A catmi vial kha a minung
an si. A dilsal, a dirsal, a cem tiang a dir rero. A cem le an sawngaw ih an paih sung an peh
rero.
8. 2 Sakuh Khurlut (Sakuh Kurlut)
Hlanlai Laimi pawl ih an rawlsuan luangpi (eitambikmi) cu Vainim a si. Asim
azo in Vainim an ciing. Vainim hi Sakuh timi hmul tumpi ramsa in a duh ngaingai. Lo
Vainim a pum vete’n a eisak qheu. Lo neitu pawl sungin a rem caan ah rualpi palinga lai
in an sawmaw. Paiper, nam, tuhmui lole phaihlai (pauhpia) an keng ih Vainim an einak
ihsin Sakuh keneh cu an zawt. Anetnak ah an kua an thleng.
An neh a lut, an um ti an theifiang le an hlet(suahnak dingih kua an neihmi) an
hawl. An hlet kua pawl kha paiper an don. In hmu oltuk hlah seh an ti ih paiper kaa ah
hnahsawl mallai an zaar. An paiper parah an to; an kiangah nam an ret, an kut in fungzum
lole rawzum an keng. A hlet kua bawhtu pawl kan tiar (man) an ti in a kawpi bik ihsin an
ku, an au, hnawhsawl in an zaap. Cu tikah Sakuh pawl an hlet kaa in tlansuak an tum ih
paiper sungah an lut. Paiper cu an nen taang ih fungzum in an sun that qheu.
25
Sakuh kua khurkaa, paiper karceh ih nen le sawl an zaar pawl kha nauhak lehnak
ah an tuah. Alehdan cu:
Nauhak ruunkhat kha a tumbik in asangsangte’n a fatebik tiang karkak in an
ding. Ding tahratih kheldom lole kuun in mai hmai pai’ taw ah kutsuang in,...
“Sakuh khurkut khurlut, hnahsawl tete in khar ee..” ti in an thawh rero. Nauhak
fate bik dungta bik kha a hmaipa/nu ih karlak in a lut dingih a tumbik pai’ hmai ah a
karkak in a va ding. A sangtu a lut ih a hmai-ah a va ding. Hla sak phah rero in an paih
sung leh theih a si. Kualdeuhin an ding pei ih tual vel rero a si ko.
Hminsin:
Sakuh kurlut, kurlut e, Hnahthial tete in khar e... titu khal an um. Hnahthial timi
hi zanthing, hnah hlai deuh phun a si. Asinan, ‘kurlut’ timi hi a sullam kan theih lo
ruangah kan hman lonak a si.
*******************
9. LAI THUPOLH
01. Tlang hmuahhmuah lakih niam bik ... ... Bialtlang
02. Kaa lam ihsin nauhring ... ... Hnahcang,Fang
03. Khuahlan mi pawl nazi ... ... Arcang
04. Tukverh fang dum pho ... ... Lai meithal
05. Lamzin tawpnak ... ... Ekinn
06. Mitqhep thei lo ramsa ... ... Kharbok,thengre
07. Tidai in dah lo ih zin nei ... ... Thingre
08. Keli nei ramsa lakih hmulphang pawr bik ... ... Sakuh
09. Thup lakih khawpi to ... ... Haa
10. A sunzan ih sangka kil ... ... Kepsih
****************
26
10. CONLAM THU
Kan Laimi pi le pu pawl in an rak zuamawknak bik cu con le laam a si. Cuih con
le laam cu phun tamzet a um. Cu bang pawl cu:
1) SARUAL TALH
Sarual talh hi conlam thawhnak a si. Vokthau sumli an that. Sarual an talh ruangah
meikhu sa (inn nei zo si ih zianghman talh/thah mi neilo pawl zemmi sa) hnakih uak
sawn a co thei. A sa zemawkdan ah Cong u (sabokkhai) in a kawng an la ih, a sa dang
pawl cu Conlam daan ih zir in asangsangin an zemaw.
2) THLAILAM
Vok pali thah a qul. Inntek in vokthau sumnga pakhat, a pate in vokthau pakhat,
far upa in vokthau sumli, far nauta in vokte (sawngte) pakhat. Inntekte ih vok le a pate
ih vok ih a tum deuh cu thau upa an ti ih van ni kawhnak (thawinak) ah hman a si.
Thlailam cu conlam hrangih aveihnihnak a si.
3) SETHUM THAH
Sethum thah ah cun secang pakhat, sepi pakhat le sete pakhat (beute) thla nga
kim fekfek azate’n luthum thah a si. Sehra a thah thei hlan cu a sethum thahpi a hleihnak
dingah sethum khal a thatnawn thei. Sarual khal a thatsal thei. Sethum thah cu conlam
hrangah avei thumnak a si.
4) SEHRA THAH
Sehra thah timi cu sia pali thah hi a si. Secang pahnih lakah cang nauta (a ki kheh
cin) deuh cu lumthuan an ti. Sepi le sete azate’n lu li thah a si. Sehra thah hnu in
khuang a cawi thei hlanah, a sehra thahpi hleihnak dingah sarual a thatsal thei. Cal khal
a hau thei. Hi hi conlam hrangah aveilinak a si.
5) THAHTHUAN
Sethum le sehra thahbelhmi a si. Sethum thahthuan a si ah cun sethum thah
qum ih an thah zat an that. Sehra thahthuan a si le seli thah a si. Thlacam umloin milian
pawl in an se neihtamzia langternak ah an thahmi a si. (Mi hrekkhat cun thahthuan cu
nunawn nei pawl in an nupi hrangih an tuahmi a si tla an ti).
6) CALHAU, NOHAU
A that thei pawl cun sia le na an thatkop qheu. Asinain, sia lawng asilole naa
27
lawng khal thah a theih thotho. Sethum le sehra an thah hnu lawng ah cal an hau thei
fang. Sia a that thei pawl cun na thah hnakin an upa deuh cuang.
7) FANGZA AIH
Mual ah muallungtok timi vok sumtahnak lungrinmi khawtlang in an nei.
Khawtlang ih san cin vokthau pahnih a qul. Fangza nei thei ding cun loram qha thlobantu
le hnaquantu fanu le fapa pitling qhepqhep neitu a si a qul. Fangza aihtheitu cu mi pitling
mineinung pawl an si qheu. Milian le mineinung pawl, loram qha le hnaquantu tam
sungkua hrangah cun fangza aih hi an duh tik pohpoh ah an aihtheimi a si.
8) HNIZA ZAR / AIH
Kan Lainu pawl in an rak zuamawkbikmi cu hniza zar / aih hi a si. Hniza zar/aih
thei ding cun nu qhaqhum, nu taima, nu law, nu fel tak si a qul. Nu hminthang pakhat si
an duh cun hniza an zar, an aih. Mi tah cia lei an duh lo, anmah rori in an tah thluh.
Zun zakhat a kim lo hman ah qhimnak ah zun sawmriat, sawmkua a kim cun hniza ah a
siar theih a si an ti ih a zar/aih khal an um. Za taktak kim ih zar thei an rak um ah cun
a kim lo ih zar pawl cu an thinlung sungte’n an nautat deuh qheu.
Hniza zar/aih ah cun sinfen an tahmi pawl cu midang zemawk a um ve lo. Zuquan
daan khal ah zu bel zat a um cuang lo. Inntek in quanmi an nei ih, khawpi te khalin a
theithei in an rak bawm ve. (Cal hau zawng ih hniza zar khal an um).
9) KHUANGCAWI
Secang pahnih lakih cang nauta deuh cu Lumthuan an ti. Cun, sepi pakhat thawn
luthum thah a si. Asinain, khuangcawi hlan rai on, rai biaknak ah setepa thla ruk a timi
pakhat, cawi hnu-ih sawlhlon raiphihnak ah setepa thla ruk a timi thotho pakhat thawn
lunga thah a qul.
Cun, kum sawmnga a kimlotu cun khuangcawi a theih lo an rak ti. Khuangcawi
a thupitnak san cu khawtluang ah thing an thiah ih an sawmbawlpu ding le a lamtu ding
fala pawl, ruaitlatu ding, zureltu ding pawl sawm ciamco a qul ruangah le zuamawknak a
um ih, laksawng khal a um. Cuih tlunah lam tawlrel ding a tam tuk ruangah milian le
mineinung pawl lawng in khuang an rak cawitheinak san a si. Cun, ziangvekin lian khal
hai sehla, khuangcawi thei hman ih ngailomi cun khuang an cawi cuang lo. Cu bang
pawl cu bawifa ih an ngaimi pawl tla an si.
____________________
28
11. NITHLA SIARDAN LE ATHUTAWI
Kan laimi pawl in hlanlai ihsin ni 7 tiang nisiardan kan nei. Cu pawl cu:
1. Tuisun
2. Thaisun
3. Tipsun
4. Thiamsun
5. Rumsun
6. Kamsun
7. Awhsun
1925 kum ihsin Mirang Acozah in Mission tlawng le Acozah tlawng ah cazir an thok.
Cui si’n ni kan siardan a tlengaw. Cu pawl cu:
1. Tlawngkai nikhat
2. Tlawngkai nihnih
3. Tlawngkai nithum
4. Tlawngkai nili
5. Tlawngkai ninga
6. Zarhte
7. Zarhpi ti in tlawngkai ni thlun in kan siar. Tulai ih kan ni siardan, thawnqan,
thawhleh, nilai, nilai thawqan, zirtawp, inrin, colhni timi siardan cu ziangtik kum le
ziangtik nithla ihsin kan hmangthok ti cu a faingfai lo. Lusei ihsin kan lakmi an si thei.
Annih khal in an pupa ni siardan siloin Khristian an si hnu-ih an nisiar dan a si.
1938 kum ah kan ram ah Independent Kawhhran a ding. Thu le hla an lakdan cu
Mizo ram ihsin a si. Cui hlei ah ralpi veihnihnak cem zawng, 1945 kum ah Pu Robuanga
cu Pathian thu sim in kan ram ah a rung ih Pathian thu awi thar pawl in Baibal le Hlabu
an qul thu a rung hmu. A nehhnu ih a runsal tikah Lusei hlabu le Baibal keng in a rung
ih a zem phah vivo.
1947 - 1948 kum ah Mizo ram fala le tlangval pawl in Thuthangqha bawm an
zawn ih Baibal le Hlabu tampi keng in an rungsal lala. Pathian thu awi thar pawl cun
Lusei hlabu le Baibal an hmang. 1950 kum hnulam ihsin thawhqan, thawhleh, ti pawl a
rung lar vivo ih tu ah cun mi tampi an hmang.
Hlanlai ih thla an siardan
Ni siardan vek qhiamqhiam in thlasiardan khal laimi pawl in kan rak nei ve.
Asinanin Mirang cozah in Mission tlawng a din ruangah le Acozah tlawng ih mirang ca
29
kan zirmi pawl ruangah Mirang thlasiardan sawn hi laimi hrang lawng si lo, kan ram
cozahpi hman in larzetin a hmang.
Kan Laimi pawl in kan lai thlasiardan kan theihtheinak dingah a hnuailam
bangtukin mirang thlasiardan thawn kan tarlangtlang ding. Thazet le thei ding rori in
zir ding a si pei.
Mirang Falam Mirang Falam
January Meisen July Tan
February Vau August Furkut
March Satuah September Vansar
April Fangnodawi October Fanger
May Thawilak November Tharcan
June Tualbawm December Nimkut
Falam pawl ih nithla kan retdan hi phun dangdang a um cuci. Hlan ihsin October
thla hi Fanger thla ih hmang kan um. Tedim in Khawdo Pawi an ti, Zanniat pawl in
Dawngpui an ti ih mai hmun le ram ciar ah puai nasatakin an hmang. October thla ih
kan hmankhawmdan zoh in unau kan si ti cu a fiang nasa. Hman vivo a qha in ka thei.
************************
12. THIL TAHDAN
Miphun pakhat a sivemi cun amai’ qong le nunphung ih thil tidan a nei ringring.
Thil tahdan khal cu a phunphun neimi kan si ve.
12.1. Tikcu caan rei le rei lo tahdan.
Tikcu rei le rei lo thu ah tui’ san ih kan hmanmi nazi an neih lo ruangah hi ti in
an rak tah lole an rak hminsin.
12.1.1 Mitqhep kar.. second pakhat tluk hman rei lo tinak ih hmanmi.
12.1.2 Arluk cam.. minute pahnihkhat tluk a rei tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
12.1.3 Tibur hmawm qhul..Minute pathumli lai a rei tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
12.1.4 Arsa hmin cu... Nazi hrek lo le pakhat hrawng a rei tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
12.1.5 Voksa hmin cu...Nazi pakhat hnih hrawng a rei tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
12.1.6 Sun haln (sunhrek)..Sundir nazi hleihnih hlan tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
12.1.7 Sunvu ...zinglam khawvang in zanlam khawthim tiang khi a sawh. Asinan, sunvu
hna ka tuan an ti tikah zinglam nazi pasarih lole pariat in zanlam nazi pali lole panga
30
karlak hrawng tiang a sawh.
12.1.8 Zanvar...Zanlam khua a thim in zinglam khua a van tiang tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
Zanvar an ti tikah khal zan lam khua a thim in zing lam khua a van tiang ngaingai a si
lem lo.
12.1.9 Sunvu zanvar.. Nikhat le zankhat pum tiduhnak ih hmanmi.
12.2 Lamhla tahdan.
Laimi in peng qhuam tahnak kan rak nei lo ruangah lamhla lamnai an sim tikah
tikcu can hrel in an rak tah lole an rak hminsin.
12.2.1. Thaithawh eikhel thlen theih.. cu cu peng hnihthum a hla tiduhnak ah an hmang
qheu.
12.2.2 Sunhlan feh an ti tikah penghra in peng hleinga karlak tiduhnak ah an hmang
qheu.
12.2.3. Sunvu feh an ti ah cun peng 20 le peng sawmthum hrawng hla tiduhnak ah an
hmang qheu.
12.2.4. Hlapi a si ti an simduh tikah :
hawrkuam pakhat lole tlangkhat dan a hla.. peng hrek lole pengkhat tluk hla tiduhnak,
tlang hnihthum an ti tikah peng thumli tal cu a hla tiduhnak,
tlanghra an ti tikah peng kuahra a hla tiduhnak, le tlangza an ti cun a hla tuk tiduhnak
ah an hmang.
12.3. Nikhua an rak tahdan
12.3.1 Sambak co-co-co ti’n khawthim zawngih a ai a si le qoruah a nai.
12.3.2 Sumbu khawthim hnu-ih birh-birh-birh ti ih a ai le qoruah a sur ding.
12.3.3 Khawthal ah Butlak kawr-kawr-kawr ti ih a ai le qoruah a nai.
12.3.4 Biakbairok in biakbairok ti ih a ai hlan-ah kir-kir-kir ti ih a aithok a si le qoruah
ko an ti.
12.3.5 Leilung sungin sihhlim (phikphihlim) an suak ciamco le qoruah a sur.
12.3.6 Hnahfa in an mikeu kel lo in itthat thiam lo ko mi an keu ciamco le qoruah sur a
nai.
12.3.7. Thlapi a hung de ih vorhlam ah a lei, a sen nawn a si le qoruah a tam.
12.3.8 Nisuahnak lam in nimhla a tur depdo, arsi tla an tur, an tlo hluahhlo ih an qhep
celcel a si le a thaitip ah ruahpi a sur rori.
12.3.9 Ruahsurlonak a rei ih zanlam nitlak zawngah vantol a sen hemhem tikah ruahpi
a sur rori.
12.3.10 Ruahpi ninga lai a ceen hnu-ah zanlam nitlak zawngah thlizil a hrang, vantol a
sen tikah ruahpi a han(a sur nawn lo).
31
QHENHUMNAK: CAWNTLAK FIM SIMTU
1. CHIN RAMQHEN UKAWKNAK
PENGQHEN PAKUA PAWL THUHLA
Chin ramqhen ah hin ukawknak rambial pahnih an um. Cu te cu: Falam distrik
le Mindat distrik tla an si.
Falam distrik sungih Peng pawl cu: Falam Peng, Hakha Peng, Thantlang Peng,
Tedim Peng, le Tonzaang Peng tla an si.
1. FALAM PENG
A tunglam peng 40 a si ih a pheilam ah peng 42 a um. A eria cu 991.12 skuaza
miles hrawng a si.
Khua 8770 hrawng a um ih milai 53000 hrawng an um. Falam peng cu tlaang
hraap lawnglawng a si. Hmun rawn a um lo ti tluk a si. Tlangtluan tumpi pahnih an um
ih cu te cu: Thaang Tlaang le Innbuk Tlaang an si. Thaang Tlaang ih tlaangzim saangbik
cu Thuamvum tlaangzim a si ih pi 8871 a saang. Ruun Va cu Falam Peng laifang in a
luang suk. Adang tivate pawl cu: Qio Va, Phau, Laai, Tlaairawn le Buk tla an si.
Rihli cu Falam Peng ih nitlaaknak saklam India ramri kiangah a um. Rih-khawdar
khua thawn a naihte. Tipithuanthum ihsin pi 5966 a saang ih, a kimveel cu peng 3 a
sau. Rihli Tlaang parah faar, hual, hriang, lawi, vau, vul, faarquah, sokhlei, faizong, qhil le
thing dangdang tla an kho. Kawl rawn naih ah tlor, cing le rua tla an kho.
Falam Peng um milai pawl a tambik cu Lothlo an si. Pilher Lo an tuah ih, faang,
faangcang, vainim, aalu, kawlhra, baa, be a phunphun an ciing. Hmuan sungah epal,
tiittawh, thawphat, dawhhlei, lingmaw, tanphaza, khawfi, lakphaak, banhla, khasuan,
sabit le haanghnah haangrah pawl an ciing. Acozah hnaquan le sumtuah pawl cu mi
malte an si.
Falam ihsin Kalay khua tiang mawqawpi lamziin peng 80 a um. Cun, Falam
ihsin Hakha tiang mawqawpi ziin peng 43 a um. Mawqawte ziin cu, Falam in Rih-li
tiang peng 64, Falam in Webula-Natchaung-Kalay peng 70 tla an si.
Falam khua ah carek, thirhri zung le telefon auto-telefon a um. Khuate sung lam
tiang in telefon in biak a theih zo.
Harhdamnak le fimthiamnak lam: Falam ah ihkhun 200 tlem siizungpi a um.
Cun, khuate lamah Qaihnee siizung 2, Rural Health Centre 42 a um. Falam ah Qaingyin-
say siizung khal a um.
Falam Peng ih a umzat tlawng cu: Phunhra Tlawng 4, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 3,
32
Phunriat Tlawng 11, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai 1, Mulun Tlawng 42 le Phunli Tlawng 115
an um.
Falam khua cu Falam Distrik ih khuapi a si. Falam Peng khuapi khal a si.
Tipithuanthum ihsin pi 5200 a saang. Milai 18,000 hrawng an um. Ihkhun 200 tlem
Sizung pakhat, Qaingyin Siipekhaan, Baibal College, Phunhra Tlawng 2, Phunriat
Tlawng 1, Phunli Tlawng 5, Thiamtah Tlawng 1 , Ingdwinhmuh-tikpaan Tlawng tla an
um a si.
___________________________
2. HAKHA PENG
Hakha Peng cu Falam Peng ih thlanglam ah a um. 1608.24 skuare miles a kau.
Khua 68 a um ih inn 6615, milai 43000 hrawng an um. Hakha Peng cu tlaang
hraap lawnglawng a si. Hmunrawn fiak ngaite a um. Tlangtluan pahnih a um ih cu te
cu: Bawipa Tlaang le Rung Tlaang an si. Bawipa Tlaang a sannak bik tlangzim cu
tipithuanthum ihsin pi 8873 a saang. Tiva thupi cu Bawinu Va a si. A hnaa lam ah
Timit ti in an ko. Hih tiva cu Qio Va thawn an komaw leh.
Faar, hual, hriang, vau, sokhlei, faizong, qhiil le a dang tuthing tla an kho. Kawl
rawn naih ah tlor, cing, rua le thinghak tla an kho.
Mi tam bik cu Lothlo an si. Pilher Lo an tuah ih faang, fangcang, vainim, be a
phunphun, aalu, baa tla an ciing. A umsun hmunrawn ah leikuang an tuah ih fangcang
an ciing. Hmuan tuah pawl in epal, tittaw, lakphak, khawfi, lingmaw, sabit le hanghnah
hangrah an phun. Mi malte lawng in acozah hna an quan. Sumtuahtu khal an malte.
Hakha khua ihsin Kalay khua tiang mawqawpi ziin a um ih peng 115 a sau.
Hakha le Thantlang khua karlak mawqawpi ziin cu peng 25 a sau. Aika tiang khal
mawqawpi a feh thei. Cun, Hakha-Gangaw mawqawpi ziin cu peng 70.5 a sau. Khuate
karlak lamzin cu ke lamzin lawngte an si.
Hakha khuapi ah khat le khat biakawknak ah carek, thirhri, telefon zung pawl tla
an um. T.V. thlahsinnak cetzung khal a um.
Hakha Peng ih um zat sizung cu: Ihkhun 200 tlem sizung pakhat, Qaihne Sizung
pakhat, Qaingyin Siipekhaan pakhat, Rural Health Centre pakhat le Sub-Rural Health
Centre tla an um.
Tlawng um zat cu: Phunhra Tlawng 4, Phunriat Tlawng 8, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai
2, Mulun Tlawng 35 le Phunli Tlawng 40 tla an um.
Hakha khua cu Chin Ramqhen ih khualipi a si. Tipi ihsin pi 6120 a saang. Hih
khua ah Ramqhen Acozah zungpi a um.
Cun, ihkhun 200 tlem sizungpi, Phunhra Tlawng 3, Phunriat Tlawng pakhat le
33
Phunli Tlawng 10 tla an um. G.T.I tlawng le Baibal College khal a um.
__________________________
3. THANTLAANG PENG
Thantlang Peng cu Hakha Peng ih nitlaknak lam ah a um. 1371.03 skuare miles
a kau. Khua 38 a um. Inn 8888 a um ih milai 53000 hrawng an um. Hih peng ih a um
Bawipa tlangzim cu pi 8873 a saang. Tiva tla cu Bawinu le Qio Va tla an si. Hmunrawn
fiakte a um. Tlanghrap a tam. Faar, sokhlei, hual, mau le tuthing dangdang pawl an kho
tambik.
Mi tambik cu Lothlo an si. Pilher Lo an tuah ih fangcang le vainim an ciing
tambik. Be a phunphun, kawlhra le aalu tla khal an ciing. Khawfi, thawphat, laphak
kuung le lingmaw tla an ciing. Mi malte in acozah hna an quan. Sumtuah le dawrtuah
an tamzet a si.
Thantlang le Hakha karlak cu mawqawpi ziin in a peh. Cun, Thantlang in
Hmawngtlang, Lungler tiang mawqawte a feh thei. Khuate ziin cu kezin lawng an si.
Thantlang khua ah acozah sizung pakhat a um. Khuate lam ah ihkhun 16 tlem
sizung 2, Rural Health Centre 6, Sub-Rural Health Centre 32 a um.
Fimthiam zirnak ah Thantlang Peng ah Phunhra Tlawng 3, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai
1, Phunriat Tlawng 13, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai 5, Phunli Tlawng 21 le Mulun Tlawng
62 an um.
Khat le khat biak-awk le pehzomawknak ah Thantlang khua ah carek, telefon,
thirhri zung tla a um. Meisa cu Falam Peng Laiva titha mei (hydro electric) hman a si.
Thantlang khua cu Thantlang Peng ih khualipi a si ih tipithuanthum ihsin pi
4862 a saang. Milai 8330 hrawng an um. Peng zung hmuahhmuah hih khua ah a um a
si. Phunhra Tlawng 1, Phunriat Tlawng 1, le Phunli Tlawng 3 a um.
_________________________________
4. TEDIM PENG
Tedim Peng cu Falam le Tonzang Peng karlak ah a um. 949.69 skuare miles a
kau. Khua 118 a um ih milai 76345 an um.
Tedim Peng ah Innbuk le Thaang Tlangtluan tla an um. Hi te in tlangqek an nei
ciamco. Thaang Tlaang ah pi 8871 a sangmi Thuamvum tlangzim a um. Innbuk Tlaang
cu nitlaknak lam ah a um. Tiva kuam tla cu an thuuk hngin. Ruun Va cu Tedim Peng
laifang in a luangsuk. Faar, hriang, qhiil, sokhlei, lawi, faizong le tuthing a phunphun a
kho. Kawl rawn naih ah tlor, cing le thinghak tampi a kho.
Kum khat sung khuasatdan cu buaktlak in 60 F. a si. Kum khat sungah ruah
34
ruhpibok 73 a suur.
Peng sung um milai pawl cu Lothlo an tambik. Acozah hnaquan le sumtuah cu
an malte. Lothlo pawl cu pilher lo an tuah ih faang, fangcang, vainim, be a phunphun,
aalu tla an ciing. Cun, an hmuan sungah epal, laphak, banhla, khawfi, lingmaw, sabit,
khasuan le hanghnah hangrah tla an phun. Pu pangang an zua ih puhri an tuah.
Mawqawpi ziin cu Tedim in Tonzang, Tedim in Rih-khawdar, Tedim in Taingen-
Kalay tla an si. O Fort White ihsin Qhuklai, Khuasak ah khal mawqawpi a feh thei.
Khuate lak lamzin pawl cu kezin lawnglawng a si.
Tedim khua ah carek, thirhri zung, telefon zung tla an um. Qhuklai khua ah
carek le thirhri zung a um. Khuate lam ah khal telefon an hmang ve a si.
Tedim Peng ih tlawng um zat cu: Phunhra Tlawng 4, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 3,
Phunriat Tlawng 8, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai 7, Mulun Tlawng 56, Phunli Tlawng 53 tla
an um.
Cun, Ihkhun 100 tlem sizung pakhat, Qaihnee sizung 2, Rural Health Centre 9
le Sub-Rural Health Centre 36 tla an um.
Tedim khua cu Peng Acozah khuapi a si. Tipithuanthum ihsin pi 5667 a saang.
Milai 14000 hrawng an um. Hih khua ah ihkhun 100 tlem siizung a um. Cun, Phunhra
Tlawng 2, le Phunli Tlawng 7 a um. Kutthiam Tlawng pakhat khal an phuan pek.
_______________________________
5. TONZANG PENG
Tonzang Peng cu Tedim Peng ih sak ah a um. India ram Manipur Ramqhen
thawn an ri (ramri) aw. 1360.36 skuare miles a kau. Khua 101 a um ih milai 25700
hrawng an um.
Tlaang le kuam thuuk a tamzet ih hmunrawn mal ngaite lawnglawng a um.
Tlangzim sangbik cu Lauhkhopum a si ih tipithuanthum ihsin pi 8764 a saang. Innbuk
Tlangtluan le Thaang Tlangtluan tla cu hitawk in an thok a si. Peng a laifangah Ruun
Tiva a luangsuk. Tuisa Va, Zankong Va, Vongkai Va le Tuikui Va tla cu Manipur ramri
an si.
A khomi thingkung pawl cu: faar, sokhlei, qhiil, le a dangdang tuthing tla an si.
Kawl rawn naih ah tlor, cing le maurua tampi an kho.
Milai pawl cu Lothlo an tambik. Mau ram an vaat ih fangcang an ciing. Vainim,
be a phunphun, aalu, raqhe tla an ciing. Hmuan ah epal, thawphat, laphak, khawfi,
lingmaw le pukung tla an ciing. Tonzang ram ah pupat tampi a suak.
Mi malte in acozah hna an quan. Cun, sumtuah khal malte an um. Ngamngai
khua kiangah inn saknak qha lungtlep a suak.
35
Tonzang khua le Tedim khua karlak ah mawqawpi zin a um. Tonzang in Cikha
khua tiang mawqawpi zin a um nain, qhaal tikcu lawngah hman a theih. Tonzang khua
in Tuimui khua, Selzang khua ah mawqawte a feh thei. Khuate lak zin cu kezin lawng a
si.
Khat le khat biakawknak ah carek, telefon le thirhri zung tla Tonzang khua ah a
um.
Tonzang khua ah acozah sizung pakhat a um. Cun, khuate lam ah Qaihne siizung 1,
Rural Health Centre 4 le Sub-Rural Health Centre 20 a um.
Tonzang Peng ah Phunhra Tlawng 2, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 2, Phunriat Tlawng
6, Mulun Tlawng 18, Phunli Tlawng 57 tla an um. Tonzang cu Tonzaang Peng khuapi
a si. Tipi ihsin pi 4739 a saang. Milai 6800 hrawng an um. Hih khua ah Phunhra
Tlawng 1, Phunli Tlawng 3 le Acozah sizung pakhat a um.
___________________________
6. MINDAT PENG
Mindat Peng ih saklam ah Matupi Peng, nitlaknak ah Matupi Peng le Paletwa
Peng, thlanglam ah Kanpetlet Peng pawl an um. 1219.868 skuare miles a kau. Khua
195 a um ih milai 35110 hrawng an um.
Mindat Peng cu tlaang lawnglawng a khat ih hmunrawn cu a um lo ti ding a si.
A niamnak bik hmun cu pi 2000 lai a si ih a sannak bik hmun cu pi 9000 hrawng a si. A
sangbik tlangzim cu Masi tlangzim a si ih pi 9208 a saang. Tiva thupi pawl cu: Chichaung
le Mong Chaung tla an si.
A khomi thingkung pawl cu: faar, lawi, cing, sokhlei, rua, mau le tuthing tla an si.
Kawlrawn naih lam ah tlor le thinghak pinkadu pawl tla an kho.
Milai pawl cu pilher lo an tuah ih faang, fangcang, vainim, aalu pawl tla an ciing.
Hmuan sungah epal, tittaw, khawfi, paphal le thawphat tla an phun. Sia, caw, naa, vok le
aar khal an zua.
Mindat in Matupi khua tiang peng 102 a saumi mawqawpi zin a um. Cun, Makui
Qaing Kyaukqhu khua le Mindat khua lakah peng 8 a hlami mawqaw zin a um. Mindat
in Matupi ke lamzin cu peng 75 lai a si.
Khat le khat biakawknak ah Mindat khua ah carek, thirhri zung, telefon zung le
radio-telefon zung tla a um. Khuate um pawl in khal telefon an hmang thei ve zo.
Mindat khua ah ihkhun 100 tlem acozah sizung a um. Khuate hrangah Qaihne
sizung 1, Rural Health Centre 6, le Sub-Rural Health Centre 28 an um.
Mindat peng ah Phunhra Tlawng 2, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 3, Phunriat Tlawng
6, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai 1, Mulun Tlawng 41 le Phunli Tlawng 115 tla an um.
36
Mindat cu Mindat Distrik ih acozah khuapi a si. Mindat Peng ih khuapi khal a
si. Tipi ihsin pi 4860 a saang ih milai 2000 lai an um. Hih khua ah Phunhra Tlawng 2
le Phunli Tlawng 7 tla an um. Ihkhun 100 tlem sizung khal a um. Cun, Thiamtah
Tlawng le Kutthiam Tlawng khal a um.
__________________________
7. KANPETLET PENG
Kanpetlet Peng cu Mindat Peng ih thlanglam ah a um. Anitlaknak lamah Paletwa
Peng a um ih a thlanglam ah Rakhaing Ramqhen a um. 964 skuare miles a kau. Khua
113 a um ih milai 15560 hrawng an um. Pi 3000 tlun saang, tlaang tampi an um ih a
sangbik tlangzim cu Khonutum tlangzim a si; pi 10200 a saang. A tumbik tiva cu
saklam ihsin thlanglam ah a luangsuk.
A khomi thingkung pawl cu: faar, lawi, rua, mau le a dang tuthing tla an si. Sokhlei
sen le raang tla khal Khonutum Tlangtluan ah an kho.
Peng sung um milai pawl cu pilher lo an tuah ih faang, niim, vainim, be a
phunphun, aalu, pat tla an ciing.
Sia, caw, naa, vok le aar khal an zua. Hmuan ah lingmaw, dawhhlei, khasuan le
hanghnah hangrah tla an phun. Khat le khat biakawknak ah Kanpetlet khua ah carek,
thirhri zung, telefon zung tla a um.
Kanpetlet khua ah acozah sizung pakhat a um. Khuate lamah Qaihne sizung 1,
Rural Health Centre 4 le Sub-Rural Health Centre 16 an um.
Kanpetlet le Makui Qaing ih Saw khua karlak ah mawqawpi lamzin a um. Cun,
Kanpetlet le Mindat ke lamzin cu peng 38 a sau.
Kanpetlet Peng ah Phunhra Tlawng 1, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 2, Phunriat Tlawng
3, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai 1, Mulun Tlawng 11 le Phunli Tlawng 80 tla an um.
Kanpetlet cu Kanpetlet Peng ih khuapi a si. Tipi ihsin pi 4820 a saang. Milai
3500 hrawng an um. Hih khua ah acozah sizung, Phunhra Tlawng pakhat le Phunli
Tlawng 3 tla an um. Kanpetlet khualu lam ah Mt.Victoria tlangzim a um.
______________________________
8. MATUPI PENG
Matupi Peng cu Hakha Peng le Thantlang Peng thlanglam ah a um. A thlanglam
ah Mindat Peng le Paletwa Peng tla an um. 2316.8 skuare miles a kau. Khua 141 a um
ih milai 48700 hrawng an um.
Matupi Peng cu tipithuanthum ihsin pi 3300 a saang. Tlangsang le kuam thuuk
lawnglawng a si. Hmunrawn mal ngaite a um. Lungting tlangzim cu pi 8961 a saang.
37
Tipi thupi pawl cu Lemro va, Bawinu va, Mitta va, Tisisarawng va tla an si. Bungtla ti
tla cu Lemro tiva hna ah a um.
A kho mi thingkung pawl cu faar, lawi, cing, nuang, mau, rua le a dang tuthing
pawl tla an si.
Milai pawl cu Lothlo an tambik. Pilher lo an tuah ih fangcang tambik an ciing.
Vainim, be a phunphun, faang le phiang an ciing. Hmuan sungah lingmaw, khawfi,
laphak, le khasuan tla an ciing. Matupi in Hakha ah, Gankaw ah, Mindat ah mawqawpi
thawn feh a theih. Khuate lam tlawnawknak zin cu kezin lawngte a si.
Khat le khat biakawknak ah Matupi khua ah carek, thirhri zung le telefon zung
tla a um. Khuate lam ummi hrekkhat pawl khal in telefon an hmang ve.
Matupi Peng ah ihkhun 50 tlem sizung 1, Qaihne sizung 2, Rural Health Centre
8 le Sub-Rural Health Centre 12 tla an um.
Cun, Phunhra Tlawng 5, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 2, Phunriat Tlawng 8, Phunriat
Tlawngkhuai 2, Mulun Tlawng 40 le Phunli Tlawng 133 tla an um.
Matupi cu Matupi Peng ih acozah khuapi a si ih tipi ihsin pi 3300 a saang. Milai
10000 lenglo an um. Hih khua ah ihkhun 50 tlem sizung, Phunhra Tlawng 2 le Phunli
Tlawng 2 tla an um. Baibal College pakhat khal a um.
________________________
9. PELETWA PENG
Paletwa Peng cu Chin Ramqhen ih thlanglambik ah a um. A saklam ah Matupi
Peng, nisuanaklam ah Kanpetlet Peng, nitlaknaklam ah Begladesh ram le India Mizoram
an um. Cun, thlanglam ah Rakhaing Ramqhen a um.
3176.04 skuare miles a kau. Khua 40 a um ih milai 67500 hrawng an um. Paletwa
Peng ih zatek 80% cu pi 200 hrawng a niam ih hmunrawn kaupi a um. A sangbik
tlangzim cu Kima a si ih pi 2000 lai lawng a saang. A tumbik tiva pawl cu Kaladan,
Lemro le Mi Chaung tla an si. Kaladan cu Paletwa Peng a laifang in a luang. Lawng a
feh thei.
A khomi thingkung pawl cu tlor, qhanaung, mau le khuasatnak ih a khomi
thingkung tla an si.
Peng sung um milai pawl cu Lothlo an tambik. Leikuang an tuah ih fangcang an
phun. Mau ram khal ah fangcang an ciing ve. Cun, mipe, be a phunphun, sikawng,
sihmui, pat tla an ciing. Hmuan sungah khasuan, lingmaw, haai, banhla, thiing, aire tla
an phun ih an zuar qheu. Vok, aar, caw, sia le mee khal an zua.
Khat le khat biakawknak ah Paletwa khua ah carek, thirhri zung le telefon zung
tla an um.
38
Paletwa ihsin Kyauktaw ah, cuih siin Sitqui ah tangphawlawng a feh. Lemro Va
ah khal lawng a feh thei. Tivate pawl khal ah lawng a feh thei.
Paletwa khua ah acozah sizung a um. Cun, khuate lam ah Qaihne sizung 1, Rural
Health Centre 8 le Sub-Rural Health Centre 32 a um.
Paletwa Peng ah Phunhra Tlawng 3, Phunhra Tlawngkhuai 5, Phunriat Tlawng
4, Phunriat Tlawngkhuai 4, Mulun Tlawng 52, Phunli Tlawng 207 tla an um.
Paletwa cu Paletwa Peng ih acozah khuapi a si. Tipi ihsin pi 179 lawng a saang.
Milai 7000 lenglo an um. Hih khua ah acozah sizung, Phunhra Tlawng pakhat, Phunriat
Tlawng 2 le Phunli Tlawng 3 tla an um.
Paletwa khua cu tangphawlawng colhhmun khua a si.
***********************************
2. LEITLUN SAN THUANTHU
(A thok ihsin BC cem tiang, Jesuh Khrih suah tiang)
Thuhmaihruai
San thuanthu ngaan tikah minung ih thil cangmi pawl a um. Cuih thu pawl cu
Lai qong in ‘Misa polh thuhla’ ti ah kan ko ih a dik rori ti ih sim a har. Kum Million
400,000 BC ihsin a rak thok zo ti ih zummi san thuanthu sungah Peking man, Neanderthal
man tivek tla a um ih kum 50,000 BC hrawngah netabik Vurtikhal san a cem ti a si. Cuih
si’n Homo Sapain san a thok ih meisa tuah tla an thiam, ramtoih le ngakaih khal an
thiam. Cule khuaitizu le thingrah, thinghram hawldan tla an thiam. Neanderthal pawl
kha Australia lam ah an feh ih Homo Sapain pawl tla Asia ihsin America an thleng ti a
si.
Kum 13,500 BC hrawngah saklam vurkhalpi a zup ih, cu mi cun tilik a suahter.
Cuih san pawl cu lungto san ti a si ih san thuanthu ngantu pawl in qhen thum ah an qhen
qheu. Hi san pawl ah ramsa qhen khat inzuat sumhnam ngamtermi pawl cu uico (Kum
12,000 BC), mee (kum 10,000 BC), tuu (Kum 7,000 BC) le rang (Kum 4,000 BC) tla
an si. Dar le ngun ser, leng tuah, tihriat lothlawh tla an thiam thok.
I. Hmaisa bik qhansonak Mesopotamia in
Mesopotamia timi cu tulai san daan a hram thawhnak a si. A hertheimi leeng le
leibel tla an tuah thiam, sangvut le barley tla an ciing thok. Sang tla an tuah. Thingrah an
carter ih reipi reet an thiam. Cuneiform ih cangan le casiar cu Mesopotamia ih Sumerian
miphun pawl in an tuah hmaisa ih cazirnak tlawng a rak thoktu tla an si. Cu cu kum
39
3,000 BC hrawngah a si. Mesopotamia qhansonak hi kum 12,000 BC in kum 3,000 BC
tiang a si. Sumerian pawl lawng siloin Akadian pawl khal kum 2,500 BC hrawng in an
qhangso ve. Kum 1,900 BC hrawngah cun Babylon mifim Hamurabi in leilungtlun ah
upadi daan hmaisabik a tuah (Hamurabi’s legal code ti a si). Hi lai ah a cakbik ram cu
Assyria a si ih kum reipi an uk.Kum 840 – 721 karlakah Assyria in Syria le Israel pawl a
neh. Cule kum 669 – 663 BC ah Egypt khal a neh ih ram kaupi a uk. Asina’n Babylon
pawl an cak vivo ih kum 612 BC ah Assyria khawpi Nineveh an siatbal. Cuih si’n Assyria
ram pumpi kum 610 BC ah an nehsuak thei.
II. Egypt ram qhansonak
Egypt ih minung nunphung le khawruahnak qhansodan ah Mesopotamia sangtu
a si. Kum 5,000 BC hrawngah tihriat lothlawh an thiam thok. An ram uktu siangpahrang
cu Faraoh ti in an ko ih a hmaisabik Faraoh cu Mehes a si. Gilgmesh siangpahrang cun
Uruk khawpi kulhnak hauhruang a tuah. Kum 2,600 BC ah Uruk khawpi ah Pyramid
tumpi an dawl. Kum2,550 ah Giza khawpi ah pyramid tumpi an dawlsuak lala. Egypt
pawl hi an qhangso kan ti na in Assyria in siseh, Babylon in siseh, a hnu-ah Greek le Rom
in siseh, raal an neh qheu. Ukawknak le raal hriamnam ah a niam deuh a si bik ding zum
a um.
III. Babylon Qhansonak
Kum 1,900 BC ah Babylon uknak a thok. Hmaisa Babylon a si. A siat lawk ih a
voi hnihnak a thoksal. A cakzetmi Assyria cu Babylon siangpaharng Nebuchadnezzer cu
a cak ih a puarzet. Kum 605 BC ah Egypt, 598 BC ah Jerusalem a neh ih a siatsuah qheh.
Ram minung pawl ralkaihmi ah tampi a hruai. Asina’n kum 50 BC ah Babylon cu Persia
siangpahrang Cyrus (Sairas) in a neh. Cuih si’n Persia cu raal a do vivo ih Greek pawl
khal kum 525 BC ah a neh. India ram nitlaklam khal kum 516 BC ah a nehsuak.
IV. Greek le Rom qhansonak
Kum 2,500 BC hrawngihsin Greek pawl tla an qhangso thok. Kum 1135 BC
hrawngah Sparta khua an din. Kum 776 BC ah Olympic lehzuamnak an thok. Kum 508
BC ah democracy uknak cu Athens khawpi ah an thok. Persia pawl in Greek cu an do ih
siangpahrang Darius ho in Marathon khua ah an neh. Cule kum 480 BC ah Persia
siangpahrang Xerxes in Greek khawpi Athens cu a urkang thluh. Greek siangpahrang
Alexander cu kum 356 BC ah a suak. Siangpahrang a quan hnu-ah raldo a cakzet ih
Persia ih ukmi ram hmuahhmuah a neh qheh. Egypt ram saklam ah Alexander khawpi a
40
din. A ukmi ram hmuahhmuah ah phunsangtlawng le cazohnak calaidum (library) a din
vivo ih tlun ah Greek qong thiam dingin rampi sungah thu a pek.
Rom khawpi cu kum 753 BC ih dinsuahmi a si. Kum 338-312 BC hrawngah
Rom ram ih hman ding tangkafang an tuah, in ding Appian tilaknak le Appian lamzinpi
tla an tuah. Rom cu a cak vivo ih leilungpi uktu Greek pawl a do thlang. Kum 146 BC ah
a nehsuak. Greek ukmi ram hmuahhmuah Rom ram ah a cang. Raldo an thiam ih hlei
ah tlangsuak ukdan (Senate) thiam hmaisa le hmang hmaisabik an si. Rom uktu Juliet
Caesar a thih tikah do-awknak, ram uktu cuhawknak a um ih, Octavius timi Caesar
Augustus in a neh qheh. Kum 40 BC ah Judah ram uktu ah Herod an reet. Cuih san ah
Jesuh Khrih a suak.
V. Asia leilung qhen Tuluk le India qhansonak
Asia leilungqhenlam ah Tuluk (China) le India ihsin nunphung le fimthiamnak a
thok. Kum 1800 BC hrawngah pawl an siim. Kum 563 BC ah Siddhartha Guatama in
India ram ah Buddhist biaknak a din. Kum 2,200 BC ah a thok. Kum 720 BC ihsin
Tuluk ram ukawknak a qhenaw celcel. Tuluk mifim Laozi (605-520 BC) in Taoism timi
Tuluk biaknak a phuan. Kum 220-10 BC ah Tuluk rampi kha Xiongnu raal ihsin
humhimnak hrangah Tuluk Hauhruangpi timi (Great Wall of China) a dinsuak.
******************************
3. CHIN RAM HMUN HLEICE PAWL
3.1 Bungtla
Buntla thlaser cu Matupi ihsin peng 14 tluk hlatnak phaneng uksuh Qhisawnag
khua kiangah a um. Lairam ah a tumbik le a suabik tlaser a si ih a mawibik khal a si.
Matupi ihsin khal hmuh a theih. Bungtla tlaser timi cu tlaser kiangkap ih ummi Laimi
pawl ih hminsakmi a si. ‘Bung’ ti cu a sannak in a tla, a sungihsin a bung, a hlon tinak a
si ih ‘tla’ ti khal cu a tla tinak a si. Cuhrangah Bungtla sullam cu ‘a tla’ tinak a si. Bungtla
cu Tinsih khua saklam ih um Aytawraw tlangzim a simi Lungkil lole Lungtin tlanghram
ihsin tiputmi thlanglam ah a luang vivo ih lungkham hrapzet thlunin a luangliam vivo.
Curuangah zohtlakzetmi, mi mit a lazet na’n tithiam lo pawl hrangah cun mi a raapzet.
Bungtla hi Lemro tivapi ih tihna a si vekin Lai qongfim khal ah ‘Lemro a thok
Bungtla in’ timi qongfim an nei. Bungtla hi tipithuanthum ihsin pi 5000 leng lo a saang.
Tlaser kiangkap lungkhampi ah Khuaibu tamzet an um. Lungkhampi tlun ah Batel timi
tangpit damnak si, kamung si, Palap kua, si tuahnak qha thingkung, lungthi pawl an um.
41
Lungkham kiangkap ah a tikcu caan ih a parqheumi senhri phunphun le amahte khomi
thingkung siar cawk lo an um.
Tlaser kiangkap keh le vorh ah tupi makzet a um. Cui’ tupi sungah Pawpi, Ngal,
Savom, fung, Sakhi, Zathar, Zukneng ramsa phunkip umnak hmun nuamtak a si. Zawng
phunphun, vate phunphun umnak a si. Laimi in kan uarzetmi Vapual vabawi umnak
hmun khal a si. Cu vek hmun thupi a si ruangah Parliment san lai ih Wunna KyawHtin
U Za Hoe in tlaser kimvel peng thum sung thing hau lo ding le ram tawi lo dingin a
kham.
Qhal tidai mal caan ih a luangmi tidai tah tikah pi 4 tluk a kim thei. Furpi tidai
tam caan ah cun Pi 30-40 tiang a kim thei. Tlaser tluntabik cu a san lam pi 1000 tluk a
sang ih a dang pawl cu pi 100 tluk hrawng an sang. Bungtla tlaser hi hmang thiam seh la
a suahpi dingmi electric power in Lairam lawng siloin Kawlram saklam zate sun le zan
tleu pempem in kan vang thei ding. Aveikhatnak Pyithu council san, kum 1975 ah
Bungtla tlaser hi Hydro electric tuah ding thuhla zingzoi dingin Boyokegyi San Yu in
Mindat a thlen qum ah a fial. Cui’ kum ah Makui Division, Pakukku ih ummi ralbawi
Major Sein Win hohanak in Bungtla cu an zingzoi na in quanpeh loin an um lanta.
Tidai mal caan hman ah Electric power Kilowat 264600 ngah thei dingmi a si.
3.2 Ruun tiva
Ruun tiva hi India ram Manipur state Imphal khawpi in a putthok. Tedim peng
ah a rung luanglut ih Falam peng ah a rung luangtlang ih kawlrawn ah Nik vapi thawn
an komaw. Cui si in a luang viovo ih Kalay khawtaw ah Chindwin tivapi a vun komsal.
A luang vivo ih hmunrawn lam khua tampi hrut phah vivo in Tifinriat ah a kom . Hi
ruun tivapi hi a luannak kawr a sengse tuk ruangah Laitlang ah cun tiluan a cakzet. A
luannak lunglak a tamnak ah cun runva tluan ah tisuar hmuh ding tampi a um. Curuangah
tiva kap thil cinnak ih sorbawk ding nelrawn a mal ngaingai. Tiluan a siatuk tikah qhal
nikhua hman ah tan a theihnak hmun a mal ngaingai. Lilawn don ding le a harsazet
fawn. Van Hmung khawlipi Tlaisun (ahlan ih Fahlam) le Hmunli karlak lawng ah lilawn
an rak don thei. Sungkhat laina runralkhat ih um pawl khal tlawn an duhzet theu na’n
an tlawn thei lo ruangah vate bangih zuan thiam an cak thu hla in an rak phuah hngehnge.
Mawtaw zin an ceh hnu in Zamual khawtaw, Var ah lilawn an don ih cu hman cu
khawqhal lawng ah an hmang thei. Pu Za Hre Lian in Lai Vuangyi a quan laiah thirhri
lilawn qhazetin an don thei. Hakha khua ih tlawngta Puaipi an tuah qumah thirhri lilawn
thlangah lilawn pakhat an don bet ih tu ah cun fur, qhal tiloin mortor a feh thei. Hi run
tiva kapah hin acozah in Farthling ernak cet an bun. A khatlam Lumbang khawtaw ah
tilipi an dawl. Cu tawk ihsin tidai an lasuak ih Var hmun ah Hydro Electric Power an
42
tuah. Falam khuapi cu cu mi Meisa a hmang. Run tiva hi kan pu le pa pawl ih tiva saubik
an theih tawk a si urangah sung le khat an ngai duahdo ih lam hla khal seh la tlawng
thotho an tum thu run tiva tahthim in hla an phuah. Mar pawl khal in an tumtahmi an
hngahnak thu ah , ‘Enge sei Run dung,’ ti in qonghrimnak ah an hmang ve. Curuangah
Run tiva hi kan lairam sungih tiva sau umsun a si.
**********************************
4. HARHDAMNAK
4.1 TLANGRAI QUKKUI (FLU)
Qukkui timi cu virus hrik phunkhat ruangih a cangmi thaw thawtnak lam nat
phunkhat a si. Hi mi nathrik phun hi qhen tampi in an qhen na’n nat a langterdan pawl
cu a tlangpi in an bangaw qheh. Cui a bangawmi nat umdan pawl cu khua a sik ih taksa
malte a sa, tha a cem, tit le taksa an kham in an na, khuhkhuh timi pawl an si.
Qukkui nat cangtertu virus hrik hi a bur in bur 3 ah an qhen, bur A, bur B, le bur
C pawl an si. Himi bur pawl sung ihsin leitlun ah tlangrai phun ih a cangqheumi cu bur
A sungin an si. Cu mi bur A sungah cun ahleicein A(H1N1), A(H2N2), A(H3N2),
A(H5N1) virus pawl hi leitlun huap in tlangrai phun ih minung natnak a petubik an si.
Hi bangtukin nat hrik qhen dangdang ih a qhenawk ruangah natkhamsi tuah ding tla a
harzet.
Qukkui nat cu kum upa lam (kum 65 tlun) le naute (thla 18 hnuai) pawl in an
ngah ol cuang. Ziangruangah ti le nathrik tuartheinak thazang an nei mal ruangah a si.
Qukkui nat a suah caan hi a tlangpi thu in fuur le thlatang tir lam hrawngah a
tambik. Nat sonawk theidan cu thli lakin a si ih khuhkhuhnak, hahthiaunak, ringpi ih
qong le hlasaknak pawl ihsin nat hrik cu thli sungah an zam ih cu mi thli a hipngahtu ih
cuap sungah a lut, cu ti’n nat ngah a theih. Taksa sungih nat hrik a luh hnu nazi 18 ihsin
72 sungah natnak a lang thei. Qukkui nat a tuartu cun sibawi hnenah pan ih
tuamhlawmawk ding a si.
Nat kham theidan cu;
a) Innsung thlizil thiangte ngahter ding,
b) Kut faite'n kholh ringring ding,
b) Minung tamzet umnak hmun pawl feh lo ding
d) A leng ih feh caan ah hnar le ka huhnak thawn hupaw ding,
c) Khuhkhuh caan ah pavua in hmai hup ding,
d) Qukkui nat tuar thok ti zumnak neitu pawl cun sibawi hnen pan lohli ding;
timi pawl hi nat khamdan cu an si.
43
4.2 Minung Qukkui
Qukkui nat sung ihsin, leitlun ih an buaipizetmi Qukkui cu 'Minung Qukkui' (Human
Influenza) a si. Minung Qukkui hi tlangrai phun in leitlun ah qum 4 a suak dah.
a) Qum 1-nak cu 1918 kum ah a si ih Spain ram in a thok. Hi qum ah minung million
20-40 an thi.
b) Qum 2-nak cu 1957 kum ah kan umnak Asia khawmual in a thok ih minung million
1-4 an thi.
c) Qum 3-nak cu 1968-69 kum ah Hongkong khawpi in a thok ih minung million 1 an
thi.
d) Qum 4-nak u 2009 kum ah Mexico ram in a thok ih minung tampi an thi zo.
Hi mi nat ih umdan hi qhen hnih in an qhen.
(i) Nat menmen
(ii) Nat besia ti in an qhen.
(i) Nat menmen umdan cu:
1. Malte tak a sa (38*C)
2. Hnap ti a luang, hahthiau
3. Khuhkhuh
4. Dang a na
5. Kut le ke a kham, a na
6. Lu a na
7. Rawl ei ka a thaw lo
8. A cancan ah luak a suak, sung a qha lo
(ii) Nat besia umdan
1. Tak a sazet (38*C tlun)
2. Khuhkhuhnak ah an baang
3. Taksa a zoi qheh
4. Thawthawt a har, thaw a pit
5. Daite'n an um thiam nawn lo
6. Zianghman an thei nawn lo timi pawl an si.
Hi mi nat umdan pawl hi zamrangzetin a cang qheu ruangah 'Minung Qukkui'
cu qih a um cuang. A tlun ih nat umdan pawl a um tikah sibawi hnenih pan lohli ding a
si.
******************************
44
5. THUTHANGLAM THIAMNAK
( Journalism)
Rampi pakhat dinnak hrangah ukawknak (administration), thuqhennak (judiciary)
le Daan tuahnak (legislation) timi Banqhuampi (3) hi thupizet an si. Cu mi lakah apalinak
Banqhuam cu Thuthanglam thiamnak (Journalism) a si. Thuthangca umlomi ram cu
‘mitcaw’ ti ah an ko. Ram pakhat ih sinak le tuahquanlairelnak pawl hmuhsak, langter
cingcingtu cu Journalism a si ruangah ‘Rampi ih mitfang’ ti khal in an ko. Hi tlukih thupi
le kaumi a si ruangah tui qum ah cun a tlangpi thu lawng kan cuantlang thei ding.
1. Journalism (Thuthanglam thiamnak)
Journalism timi cu Senpi pehtlaihnak hmanrua (media) a simi thuthangca,
magazines, radio, TV le a dangdang ih suah ding thu pawl hawl in khawlkhawm hnu-ah
zohfel ih nganthiamnak a si.
Journalism cu senpi pehtlaihnak hmanrua (media) zapi huap simnak hrangih
hmanmi a si. ‘Milai’ timi in mipa, nunau, a tar, a no, zapi a huap vekin ‘Journalism’ cun
media zapi a huap qheh ti ah American ram thuthanglam thiamsang milai (57) komkhawm
(Sanman thuthanglam thiamnak committee) in a nemhnget. Hi nemhngehnak vekin cop
le cilh ih cangmi thuthang pawl mipi hnenih thlennak hnaquan zapi cu Journalism an si
qheh. Hi thiamnak cu dik, rang, danglam timi (to be true, to be topical and to be new)
thuken khal a nei cih.
2. Senpi pehtlaihnak hmanrua (Media)
A thupideuhmi senpi pehtlaihnak hmanrua (media) phun (6) a um:
1. Thuthangca pawl (Newspapers)
2. Magazine pawl (Magazines)
3. Cabu pawl (Books)
4. Radio (Radio)
5. TV (Television) le
6. Zuknung (Cinema) pawl tla an si.
2.1 Thuthangca pawl
Umnak ti le tlang zir ih suahmi (regional) thuthangca pawl ihsin rampi huap ih
suahmi (national) thuthangca pawl ti’n a um. Hnah malte ihsin hnah a tingting ih suahmi
tiang khal a um thei. Nitin suahmi (Daily news), zarhtin suahmi thuthangca (Weekly
Newspaper) pawl a um vekin zarhhnih veikhat (Bi-weeklies) pawl, zarhthum veikhat
45
suahmi (Triweeklies) pawl an tel. Thupipa telhmi (serious newspaper) pawl an um vekin
zatlang duhnak hoih ih suahmi (tabliod newspaper) pawl khal an um. Kan ram ah cun hi
vek thuthangca pawl cu Journal ti’n khal an ko. A tlangpi thu in journal kan timi pawl cu
thu le hla pakhat tlunah fumfe deuh ih hmuitin in suahmi deuh an si.
Thuthang tawlreltu kan ti tikah kawhdan dangdang khal hmancih a si; newsman,
pressman, newswoaman, presswoman, … tivek pawl. Thuthang zingzoitu (Reporter,
Correspondent, Stringer) ti’n siseh, Media Person, Editor, Editorial Writer ti’n khal siseh,
Columnist (column ngantu), Feature Writer, Staff Writer tivek khal in kawhcih an si. An
zapi huap cun Journalist (thuthang tawlreltu) tiah kawh thluh an si cio.
Thuthang peksuahawkdan ih zir in Print Journalist, Paper Journalist, Radio
Journalist, TV Journalist, Photo Journalist, Wire Journalist tivek khal an qhenaw vivo. Acozah
in maw, pawlkompakhatkhat in maw thuthang ngan dingih a sawm tikah cun Journalist
ti lo in Press timi qongfang hman a si. owif;pm½Sif;vif;yGJ khi Journalist Conference an ti kel
lo; Press Conference ti ah kawh a si.
3. Thuthang
Thu asilole thil cangthar ti ah an ko tam bik. Mithiam hrekkhat cun ‘tharnak’
timi lawng in a daih lo an ti. Mihrek cun NEWS timi kha North-East-West-South (sakhmai-
dung-thlang) ih thil cangmi pawl ih thuhla a si ti khal in an sim.
4. Thuthang ih pianphung
Thuthang ih pianphung sizia cu pehzomnak tiah an sim. Thanzalhnak
(Advertisemnet) sungah thuthang a tel vekin Hmuhdan thandarhnak sung khlah thuthang
a tel thotho. Seni vangtlang theih qheh ko ih tuah kha thuthang ih pianphung a si ruangah
senpi pehzomnak phun a si ko. Thuthang cu a cantertu milai le a candan tumsen ih zir in
a dangaw vivo ve. Danglam tuk lemlo thuthangte ihsin rampi hnintertheitu thuthang
tiang a huap. Thurham (7) tlun ah qumaw in a danlamnak an qhen: (1) Thlengawknak
(change), (2) Tusulzom (conseçuences), (3) Diknak (truth), (4) Cankhelnak (timeliness), (5)
Danlamnak (prominence), (6) Naihawknak (nearness) le (7) Hmualneihnak (impact) ti
pawl an si.
*******************************
46
6. LEILUNGPI FATETTERNAK (Globalization)
Leilungpi fatetternak hmunkhatnak timi cu leilungpi huapin cangvaihtlangnak
pursumleilawnnak, rampi thu, kiangkap thu, le nunphung lam thu ah leilung hmunkip
ih ta kha zamrangzetin hmunkhat ih hmantlangnak thu hi a si bik. Leilungpi
hmunkhatnak a suahpitu cu pehthlaiawknak, phurhsuksoawknak, le thuhla
thantonawknak caktertu cetlam thiamnak ih a suahpimi a si. Hi sungah a telvemi cu
sumdawnnak thu ih quantlangnak le sumhramphumtonawknak (multinational
corporations) le leilungpi huap in thil zuarnak le laknak tuahtheitu sumdawnnak tla an
tel. Ram tampi quantlang tahratih pursumleilawnawk le sumpai thlengawktonnak hi
lelungpi pumkhatnak a sangtertu ah a cang. Hmunkhatnak in siatnak le thathnak a
suahpi ve: A siatnak lam kan zoh tikah, nat sia a phunphun, rittheinak thil a phuphun,
cozah duhlozawng sualtuahnak, ram khat le ram khat, mibul siatsuah duhtu pawl,
khamtheihlomi hmunkip ih vaihciamconak ti pawl a si.
A qhatnak lamah, fimthiamnak , cet lam thiamnak, sumpai hramphumnak,
qulsammi thil le ri, le nuncan ziaza lam ih man neihnak pawl olzetin hlawmawk a theih.
A thupibik ih hmunkhatnak a suahpitubik cu pumsumleilawnnak le sumhrampi tampi
neitu pawl ih sumhram phumnak, sumthlengawktonnak, hmuntin ih dawr neihnak ti
pawl ruangah asi bik. 1950 ihsin 2001 leilung pumpi ih thil an kuatsuaknak hi let 20 in
a thang. Kum 2001 in Lelungpi pursumleilawnawknak cu Leilung pumpi huap ih
thilri le hnaquannak pawl khal ahlan hnakin zatek 25 in a thang. Sumpi lam thu ah
1970 kum thok lamah cun $10 billion in $20 billion hrawnghrang ih nitin ih a thlengaw
suksomi a si. Asina’n kum zabil 21 thok lam in $ 1.5 billion thawn a tlukawmi Japan yen,
euro, dollars le midang ram ih hmanmi tangka ti pawl cu leilungpi sumtuahnak le
sumhram phumnak lam ah an hmang . Ahleicein, sumpai thleng man a qum le a kai ti
khal telrel cuang lo in tangka tampipi hi leilungpi in a hmang thei.
Pehtlaihawknak qhattuk ruangah Leilung hmunkip ih ummi pawl hmunkhatnak
a suahpi. Thimnakah: TV ih thuthanmi kan ngai , kan zoh tikah hmunkip ih thil cangmi,
ral thu, leilung ih amahte a suahpimi harsatnak phunphun, lehnak thu, le a dang theih
qha phunphun kan thei thei. Cuihsin leilungpi ih a cangmi pawl kan thei, kan hmucih
thei. Internet, email, fax ti vekin leilung hmun ih kip pehtlaihnak a cak. Website le
computer ti vek sungah minung ih kan qulmi thu le hla tampi a thun thei tikah cu pawl
ihsin kan theih duhmi thu le hla, kan hmuh duhmi thil a phunphun kan hmu thei fawn.
Phurhsuksonak lam khal hi hmunkhatnawknak ih qekhnge pakhat a si. Ahlan ih ke in
rak feh a qulreronak ah cycle, mortor, tlangleng in kan feh ih kan thleng lohli. Tlunvan ih
a zuangmi Jet vanzam tla cu rangtukin kan duhnak hmun in thlenpi theitu a si.
47
7. CHIN MILANGSAR PAWL
7.1.Pu E. Van Kyi
SUAHNAK KHUA LE RAM
Pu Van Kyi cu Falam peng Locom khua ih um Pa Khuang Zal le Nu Saw Hlai te
ih fapa upa sawn a si ih kum 1929, February ni 8, Locom ah a suak.
TLAWNGKAINAK
Kum 1937 June in Congkua phunli tlawng ah tlawngkai a thok ih 1942 kum ah
Falam Acozah A/V tlawng in phunnga a ong. 1942-1944 sung cu Leitlun ralpi
veihnihnak ruangah tlawng a pit thluh ih khua ah Lothlo in a um. Kum 1945 in Falam
ah tlawng a kaisal ih phun sarih tiang a zir. Phunriat ihsin phunhra tiang cu Rangoon ih
St.John Diocean Boys High School le Cushing High School ah a kai ih 1951 ah phunhra
(Matriculation) a ong. Kum 1952 in University of Rangoon phunsang tlawng a kai ih
kum 1956 ah BA (Ed) a ong. B.Ed dikari cu a hnu ah a ong leh.
HNAQUANNAK
Kum 1956 June ihsin Mindat State High School sazaci a quan thok ih kum 1968
ah Burma Educational Service (Senior grade) vuanthok rank in Lairam hmun dangdang
ah High School sazaci a quan vivo. Kum 1972 ah Myone Tlawng vuanthok (TEO) a
ngah. Kum 1977 December thla in Hakha khua ih Chin Pinee Pingiazi zungah Pinee
Pingiazihmu bawmtu (Sitsizi) a quan. Cu qheh in Pinee Pingiazihmu bawmtu (Simaan)
a quan. Kum 1985 July ni (1) in Chin Pinee Pingiazihmu (Sitsizi) a ngah ih 1988 June
ni (12) ah Pinee Pingiazihmu a ngah. Kawlram hmun dangdang ah quanloin kum (35)
sung rinsantlak le zuamzet in Lairam sung lawng ah tlawng le zung ah fimthiamnak lam
hna a quan. Kum 1991 January ni (1) ah kum kim pinsin a laak. A tu tiang a dam lai ih
Falam khua, Cinmual veeng ah a um.
HNAQUAN SUNGIH RAMLEENG A FEHNAK
Kum 1962-’63 kum khat sung United Kingdom (UK) ah ca a zir ih Post Graduate
Diploma in The Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) a ong.
Kum 1975 September thla ah zarh hnih sung Japan ram ah fimthiam zirnak zoh
dingin a feh.
HNAQUAN A CEEMCIHMI
i) A hnaquan sungah ahmaisabik Pituh Hluatdaw palai a quan ceem. Chin Pinee Pituh
Khawnsil khal a quan ceem.
48
ii) Calai lam nganmi le suahmi pawl
a) Pawlpi Thuthangca ah Editor bawmtu a quan.
b) English-Chin Dictionary 1954 ah a ngan ih a suah.
c) Baibal Thuanthu cabu 1955 ah a suah.
d) Thinlung Thlalang cabu 1955 ah a suah.
e) 1960 kum ah Rev. E.Kyon Bil thawn Thang Tsin Mekazin an suah thok.
f ) Laica le a Ngandan (Chin Orthography) cabu 1993 kum ah a suah.
PINSIN HNU IH A HNAQUANMI
i) 1991-2003 sung Falam ih Zomi Theological College ah Mirang cazirhtu
ii) 1995-1998 sung Zomi Baptist Convention Treasurer
iii) 1998-2003 sung Zomi Baptist Convention Treasurer bawmtu
iv) 1995-2001 sung Falam Baptist Association Advisor le FBA Constitution Drafting
Committee sungtel
v) Falam Baptist Church ih Deacon ah Vice Chairman a quan
vi) Zanniat qong ih Thukam Thar lehmi a zohfelsal, Saam le Thufim khal a letcih.
vii)Tulaifang ah cun Chin (Falam) casiar suah thei dingah committee thawn a zuam
rero. Cun, Chin (Falam) - English Dictionary (A awsuah phonetic thawn nganmi)
a tuah qheh ih suahsaktu ding a hawl rero lai
Upat Sunloihnak a ngahmi
i) Acozah ih pekmi “Ahmuhqhan kawng Tacik” . 1998
ii) Falam Chin Christian Literature Society (FCCLS) ih ‘Falam Calai Hram in
bunsaktu’ ti ih pekmi Capi. 2004
iii) Chin National Day Silva Jubilee cangsuak Committee ih pekmi ‘Sunloihnak
Capi’
iv) Chin Calai qhansonak dingah thiamnak le thazang suah ih taimazet ih hnaquantu
sinak ‘Cope Calai Lawmman’
v) English-Chin Dictionary nganhmaisabik ruangih Laimi Zirsang Pawlkom ih
pekmi ‘Sunloihnak Capi’. 2007
**********************************
49
7. 2. Pu Vum Thu Maung
Pu Vum Thu Maung cu kum 1900 April thla ah Mindat Peng Vumthu khua ah
a suak. Pu Than Pet Maung le Pi Kee Law Mang Yaung te ih fapa a si ih suahpi mipa
(4) le nunau (2) a nei.
Pu Vum Thu Maung cu Mindat phunli tlawng ah phunli tiang a kai qheh hnu ah
Mindat kiang ih Taungtet phungki tlawng ah phun (7) ong tiang a kai. Tlawng a suak
hnu kum 1917 ah ralkap a lut. Kum 1918 ah Havidar (Senthum) a ngah. 1919 kum ah
Jemedar (Bokhat) a ngah. 1922 kum ah Subedar (Bohnih) a ngah. Kum 1924 ah ralkap
ihsin a suak ih kum 1925 June ni (1) in amai’ khua Vumthu ah National tlawng a din ih
amah khal zirhtu a quan cih.
Pu Vum Thu Maung hi Mirang ralbawi pakhat asinain ukawkdan ah a lung a
kim thei lo ruangah ralkap ihsin a suak hnu kum 1934 March thla ah Mindat peng
Matungnu khua ah Laimi phun remnak pawlkom a din ih September ni (24) ah palai
tonkhawmnak Niwazi khua ah an tuah. Cuihsin thok Kawlram mahte ukawknak
ngahtheinak dingah Duhbama Asiazung pawlkom pawl thawn pehtlaiawknak an nei.
Kum 1939 July (28) ah Lairam remnak pawlkom ti in an hmin an thleng. Hih Lairam
Remnak Pawlkom cu kumpi (uktu) ih theihpi lomi Pawlkom a si tiah kumpi in
thuthannak an nei ih 1940 March (24) ah Pu Vum Thu Maung le hruaitu upa minung
(9) an kai. Falam, Tedim, Hakha, Mandalay, Minkyan le Katha thawnginn pawl ah an
kuat. Kumpi in vei (7) tiang an kai ih Laimi minung (130) thawng an thlak.
Pu Vum Thu Maung te Katha ih thawng an tlak lai ah Japan pawl Kawlram an
thleng. Japan pawl ih bomb an thlakmi in Katha thawnginn a siat ngah ih thawngtla
pawl an suak. Pu Vum Thu Maung khal a suak ngah ve. Lairam ah a kirsal ih mahte uk
aw theinak dingah a phunphun in a zuam. Kum 1942 ah Lairam a laangte uknak kumpi
an din ih kum 1944 tiang Pu Vum Thu Maung in hotu a quan. Pu Vum Thu Maung ih
cangvaihdan kumpi in an theih tikah kaih ding an tum nain an kai thei lo ruangah
Vumthu khua ih a inn le thilri zate mei in an ur sak qheh.
Pu Vum Thu Maung hi khua le ram ih mipi a duhdawt tuk ruangah thawngtlaknak
tla vei (23) tiang a tuar. Kawlram mahte ukawknak kum 1948 January thla ni (4) ih kan
ngah tikah ramkulhpi hrang ihsin thok khuabawi tiang mipi kaihhruaitu dingah mipi in
hrilnak a um. Lairam mipi kaihruaitu ding (Chin Vuanzi) dingah Pu Vum Thu Maung
cu zapi lungkim in hril a si. Kum 1948-1952 tiang kum li sung Chin Vuanzi in quan
sak.
50
HMINQHATNAK A NGAHMI:
i) Kum 1962 ah Tamadah ih pekmi THADUMAHA TAYAH SITU.
ii) Kumpi in Luatlatzi ngahnak ding hrangah harsatnak tampi tuar in zuamtu a
sinak ah LUATLATZI MAWKUINWIN 1st Class a pek.
Pu Vum Thu Maung cu kum 1966, February ni (20), Lai Phunsuah Ni sunloih
in Mindat a feh ih an tlun kir lam February ni (23) ah Motocar accident in a nunnak a
cem. Fapa (5) le fanu (6) a nei.
************************************
8. LEITLUN MILANGSAR PAWL
8.1 Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton cu England ram ih leilung mi hmuahhmuah ih theihmi le upatmi
hminthang mifim a si. Amah cu 1642, December ni 25 ah England ram Lincolnshire
pengkulh, Woolsthorpe ah a suak. A nauhak laiah casiar a zuam ngaingaimi a si ih,
ahleicein cet lam thawn a pehparawmi thilri pawl hliakhlai le tuah lam a zuam zet. Kum
14 a si tiang tlawng a kai ih cuhnuin nuhmei a simi a nu bawm dingah tlawngkai a bang.
Kum li a cawlh hnua ah a sayagyi in a fial ih tlawng a kai sal. University cu England ih
minthang Cambridge Unversity ah a kai. Newton cu a no lai in thil titheinak lam ah a
hei in fimnaka nei. Mang neimi thithar tee a rak tuah. Thli thahmangin sangvut le
vainaim rialnak cet a tuah. Ti tha in a mermi nazi khal a tuah fawn. Ni nazi khal a tuah.
Cambridge ih Professor a quan lai ah thilthar a suahpimi pathum an um. Cu pawl cu:
1. Leilung ih hnuhtheinak tha (Gravity) a neihmi,
2.Tleunak ih sidan, le
3. Kanan quatto dan tla an si.
Atlun lam thil pathum sungin leilung le leilung sung ih ummi thil hmuahhmuah
pakhat le pakhat an pehtlaiawk dan le van ih a ummi thlapi, arsi, ni ti vek thil pawl ih
pakhat le pakhat an pehtlaiawk dan khal qha tein ruatsuak le theihtheinak lam a tuah.
Cun, tleunak ih sidan qhate ih in theifiangtertheitu khal a si. Amah in hniksaknak cet a
phunphun a tuah hnuah tleunak hi Sunsa bangtukin minmei a phunphun komkhawmaw
ih ummi an si ti a hmufiang . Cun tleunak, ni le arsi pawl an sidan qha deuhin
zingzoitheinak telescope cet khal a tuahsuak. Kanan quatnak a tuahmi khal hi santhar
fimthiamnak qhansonak hrangah a hrampi a si. Ziangahtile santhar fimthiamnak ah
kanan a tellonak a um lo ih ziang pohpoh ti kanan quatnak ah hram a rak bunawmi an si.
51
Newton hi a fimthiamnak a mak lawng siloin Pathian zum, midingfel a si ruangah
mizapi ih qihzah upat a tong. Saya a quan lai ah Cambridge University aiawh in Parliman
hrangih hrilmi PM a si. England ram ih fimthiamnak lam pawl ih dinmi ‘Royal Society’
ah kum 1672 in a tel ih neihhnu ah cui Society ah a thih hlan tiang hruaitu hna a quan.
Newton hi Leilung pumpi ih theih dingtlakin rampi hmin thantertu a si ruangah England
rampi in ‘Sir’ timi qihzah upatnak hmin tla an pek.
Newton in a thih zik zawngih thuro a cah ta mi cu: Leilung mi pawl in ziang tin
in hmu ti cu ka thei lo. Keimah le keimah ka hmuhawkndan thu hi titin a si. Hmuh hrih
lo le theih thrih lo thil in ka khat mi Tipithuanthum kap ih vnnel lakah a lek reromi, mi
hmuahmhmuah hnakin a mai sawnmi Cengkol hawng le lungkep var hmu h men ih
lungawizetmi nauhal te vek ka si, ‘tiah a ti. Newton cu kum 1727 ah a thi ih England
ram le miphun pawl in kumkha in an hngilhlonak le upa pek hrangahah Westminster
Abbey ah a ruak an vui.
8.2 Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln cu America ram Kentucky Ramkulh, Hardin peng khua fate
ah 1809 kum February ni 12 ah a suak. A pa cu tohkham le cabuai tuah in pumcawmmi
an si. An Farah ruangah Lincoln cu ca an zirter thei lo. A pa hna sawn a bawm ringring.
An man caan ah a pa in casiar le cangan a zirh qheu ih zan ah tappi meitle in ca a siar, a
ngan qheu. Meihol in phar parah cangan a zir ringring. Kum 1816 ah Lincoln tei innsang
cu Indiana ramkulh ah an vai. A nu in ro a cah ta mi cu, ‘Ka fa, kan farah tuk ih ca kan lo
zirter thei lo khal le na tlin tawk in zuam aw la leilung tlun pumpi ah hmin langmi na si
ve leh ko ding,’ ti a si. A nu in a thihsan hnu ah a pa in nupi dang a run qhi. A nuei khal
in a duhdawt zet ih a ziaza a qhat theinak dingah a phunphun in a zirh ringring. Abraham
Lincoln cu kum 21 a ti ah New Orlean khua ah a feh. Cu tawl ah cun milian pawl ih an
lo sung hnakhung quanter dingah Negro pawl sal ah tangka in an lei qheu kha hmu hai.
Minungciocio cu tangka in leiawk ih sal ah zuatawk cu dan a si lo, covo bangran ding a
si a ti qheu. Amah khal hna a phunphun a quan. Black Hawk timi ral a um lai ah ralkap
ah a lut ih Captian tiang a thleng. Ziang hna a quan poh ah taimak zetin a quan.
Mahte zuamnak in ca cu a zir ringring ih kum 1837 ah sihni camipuai a phi ih a
ong. Cu ve tein ramhna (policitcs) ah a lut ih sihni tla a quan. Kum1834 ah amah cu
Illinois ramkulh in Upadi tuahtu ah an hril ih 1842 kum tiang a quan. Cui Kum ah cun
Mary Todd timi nu thawn an qhiaw. Kum 1846 ah America ram pumpi ih Congress upa
ah an hril ruangah Washington khua ah an qhawn. A hnuah cun Republican Party sungtel
ah a lut. Cu lai ah cun Negrao miphun cu sal hrangih lei ih zuat ding an si maw si lo timi
thu elawknak America ram pumpi ah a suak. Curuangah Abraham Lincoln cu Salzuat a
52
duhlomi party ah a qang ih Negro miphun cu sal hrangah lei le zuar a duhlonak thu
hmun kip ah a sim ringring. Illinois ramkulh in Stephen A. Douglas in a el ringring nain
Abraham Lincoln cu Congress upa ah an hril. Kum 1860, May thla ah tuahmi Republican
Party tonawknak pi ah amah cu President dingah an hril. Ram pumpi Prsesident hril
can a thlen tikah Abraham Lincoln in khatlei pa cu a neh ih America ram pumpi a vei
16 nak President a ngah.
1861 kum March ni 4 ah Abraham Lincoln cu President hna a thok vete in
Negro pawl sal ih zuat a duhmi ramkulh heikhat cu America ram sungin an suak ih
komnak pawlkom a dangtein an tuah. Salzuat a duhmi le a duhlomi ramkulh pawl cu an
doaw ih ram sung ral tumpi a tho. Ral sungah cun rammi tampi an thi. A nupi hi
phunzai a hmang tukmi a si ruangah cu tluk ih ram hna a hnawh lai ah cun an toaw
ringring. A hnu rei lote ah a fapa khal a rung thi. Kum 1884 ah sung ih President
hrilawkankah Abraham Lincoln cu an hrilsal. Hi a veihhnihnak President thukamnak
ah thu a simmi cu, ‘Kanmah le kanmah ral doaw ding kan si lo, kan America rampi hi
leilung a cem tiang kan humhual a qul,’ ti a si. Kum 1965 ah cun salzuat a duhmi America
thlanglam ramqhen cu an sung sinsin ruangah an ralkap hotu General Robert Lee a bei
a dong ih 1886 kum, April ni 9 ah an ral hriamnam ret in cu ni thok in tilet le thlisia
bangtuk a simi ramsung raldoawknak a cem. Ram sung doawknak a cem hnuah hi ti in
thu a sim. “Ram le miphun hrangah nunak a pe siangmi miralqha pawl cu a menmen in
an thi a luang lo ding. Ram sung minung in an hrilmi acozah cu a hlohthlaulonak
dingah kan dinpi ding, tiah thu kan kam,” a ti. Cu cun sal luatnak upadi cu a veithumnak
a run rem sal ih Negro miphun zate cu salzuatnak in luatnak an ngah. Aveihnihnak
President hna cu rei a quan hlan, 1865 kum, April ni 14, zanlam ah Abraham Lincoln cu
Washington khualipi Ford’s Theater ih drama a zoh laiah John Wikes Booth timi pa in
meithal in a kah ih a thaizing April ni 15 ah a thi.
*********************************
53
9. GENDER: GENDER STEREOTYPING
GENDER LE MI BURKHAT IN DAAN VEKIH AN HMANMI RUAHDAN
“Thlengaw ding, thlengtlak a si ko na in hlan daan vekin si thotho, um thotho,
hlan vekin thlengawlote’n a um” timi cu (stereotyping) timi mi burkhat in daan vekih an
hmanmi ruahdan tiduhnak a si.
Nunau le mipa karlak ih hmanmi ruahdan hrekkhat pawl cun, ‘mipa cun hi ti’n a
si ding’ asilole ‘nunau cu nunau vekih um ding a si’ ti ah hlan ih ruahdan kaihnget fefe ih
hmanso vivo a si. Nunau hmuhdan, ruahdan le mipa parih ruahdan pawl a tanglam ah
tarlang hnik seh la.
MIPA TIMI CU: NUNAU TIMI CU
Thuneitu - Thungaitu
Mah le mah rinsanawtu - Mi rinsan ih nung
Thu ruattheitu - Mi thinnem
Ralqhami - Bum aw!
Qong vekih tuahsuaktu - Quanmuang
Tumtahnak tumpi neitu - Nunnem
Mi virvat - Relkhawm duh
Mi puarthau - Thinhar aw
Mi zuamduhnak lungput neitu - Ruahnak quansuak
Supawtheitu - Theilotu
A tlun ih tarlangmi pawl zoh tikah mipa parih ruahdan, nunau parih ruahdan cu
mi hrekkhat pawl ih hmanmi ruahdan pawl an si. Asinain, qhate’n ruat, zohsal sehla
mipa hmuahhmuah an si cuang lo vekin nunau pawl khal a zate’n an si ve cuang lo.
Cu a si ruangah mi burkhat ih hmanmi ruahdan pawl cu a tlangpi thu ih zohmi
a si ruangah mi pakhat ciar parah a dik tengteng ding ti ih cohlan a theih lo. Mi burkhat
ih an hmanmi ruahdan cu thil dik a simi pawl parah hrambun siloin suangtuah zumnak
parah hrambunsawnmi a si ti theih a si.
MI BURKHAT IH HMANMI RUAHDAN LE THLEIDANAWKNAK
Ruahdan qha a um vekin a qha lo lam ih ruahdan khal a um ve. A qhalam ih
ruahdan cu tamsin a qul lo na in, a qha lo lam ih ruahdan in thleidannak a suahpi qheu.
Nunau le mipa parih mi burkhat ih hmanmi ruahdan ruangah gender thleidannak a
suahter. Tahqhimnak ah nunau in thu a rel le ‘mi thurel duh’ ti a si ih, mipa in thu a rel le
54
‘thuthang a sim’ ti a si. ‘Nunau’ le ‘thurel duh’ timi kom a si ih, ‘mipa’ le ‘thuthang’ timi cu
kom a si. ‘Mi thurel’ timi cu a qhami a si lo ruangah hmuhsuam, hmuhsualnak in thleidan
pawlkomnak a suahter.
Nunau thawn pehzom qheu a simi cu ‘thuduh’ ti a si ih mipa thawn pehzom qheu
mi cu ‘thuzingzoi’ ti a si. Thu pakhat parah mi burkhat hrangah a qha in hman a si ih mi
burkhat hrangah a sia ih hman a si tikah cuih mi bur umkhawmnak ah thleidan
pawlkomnak a suahter a si.
Zate huap ih zoh a si le nunau, mipa thawn pehparaw ih mi burkhat fang ih ruahdan
a si ruangah nunau, mipa pakhat ciar parah pumhlum in a dik thei lo a si ti hmuh a theih
a si. Cuih dinhmun cu thei duh lo in nunau hmuahhmuah cu ‘hi ti’n’ an si ih, mipa
hmuahhmuah khal ‘hi ti’n’ an si timi cun pawlkomnak ah thleidannak a suahter a si.
_______________________
10. KIANGKAP THU (ECOLOGY)
10.1 Kiangkap Balhnak
Kiangkap balhnak (pollution) kan timicu kan kiangkap pianphung sung ihsin Tidai,
Thli, Leilung pawl milai ih siatsuahnak ruangah a thianghlim nawn lomi dinhmun ih an
can vivonak simduhmi a si. Milai cu thli le tidai lo in nungthei lomi kan si ruangah
thlithiang le tidai thianghlim ngah hi a thupi ngaingai. Hawpmi thli sungah CO2 timi
Carbondioxide le Methane daat khu pawl a tamtuk tikah milai harhdamnak a siatsuah a
si. Cuih cetkhu pawl tamtuk ih suahtertu bik cu zaanthing le meihol hmang ih
rawlsuannak khu pawl, motor le motor cycle khu pawl, cetzung tum pipi ih suahmi
cetkhu sahzet pawl, hnawm ur le ramkhangnak ih suahmi meikhu pawl tla an si.
Zaanthing kuung pawl hmanral qhehnak ruang khalah thlibaal rak khamtu, rak
zuuktu a malter ih thli thianghlim lo pawl duhtawk in an zeel thei. Leitlun ah Tuluk ram
Beijing Khuapi, India ram Delhi Khuapi, Korea ram Seol Khuapi, Maxico ram Maxico
Khuapi, Italy ram Milan Khuapi le France ram Madrick Khuapi pawl tla cu thlibalhnak
sah hleicemi khua pawl an si.
Leilungpi hlumnak a san tikah tikhal tlang pawl an tiiral ih tiva le tipi thuanthum
ti pawl an qhan ruangah ti a likter ih hnawmbaal phunkim thawn tidai balhnak a suahter.
Chemical Sii a hmangmi cetzung pawl ih thilsia hlon ruang khal ah tidai le leilung
balhnak a suahter thei a si. Tipi thuanthum sungih bomb puah sinnak, Zinan le hnawmbaal
a phunphun hlonnak pawl ruang khal ah tidai le leilung balhnak a suahter a si. Acozah
dawm (Chemical) dawm tamtuk hman ruang khal ah leilung a rumro ter ih lei a balhter
hlei ah zianghman cin theih nawn lo in turciap (toxic) leilung ah a canter.
____________________
55
11. OLYMPIC
Khuahlan in ka ih simsinmi sungah Hiracles le a pa Zeus cu Olympic ih pa tiah
an sim. Pipu san ih Olympic lehnak pawl (Ancient Olympic Games) cu Greece ram
Olympia ah kum 77 BC in a thok ih kum zabi 5 AD tiang tuah a si. Cui si’n Rome
uknak a lal tikah Greece pawl ih biakinn siseh, lehnak hmun pawl siseh, khuavang biaknak
pawl siseh an siatsuah qheh ih Olympic lehnak khal kum zabi 19 tiang reipi sung tuahloin
a um. Kum 1896 lawng ah Greece ram Athens ah aveikhatnak tuahsal a si ih tui ni tiang
tluangte’n tuah a si.
Olympic hi kum hnih ah vei khat tuah a si ih Qhal Olympic le Thlatang Olympic
tiah sawngawreroin tuah a si. Olympic lehnak pawl hi phun 33 a um. Qhal ah phun 26 le
Thlatang ah phun 7 leh zuamnak tiin an qhen. Thlatang Olympic cu 1924 kum France
ram Chamonix ah hmaisabik tuahnak a si. 2010 kum ah avei khatnak mino Olympic
lehnak (Youth Olympic Games) cu Siangapore ah tuah a si ding.
Lehnak pawl cu Buur in siseh, pumpak in siseh, rampi aiawh in zuamawk a si ih,
UN sungtel ram 193 tlun in an tel. Leh zuamawtu mipum 13000 lenglo sungin thiam
hleice pakhatnak, pahnihnak le pathumnak a ngahtu pawl cu Sui, Ngun, Bronze (Gold,
Silver, Bronze) sunloihnak laksawng pek an si.
Olympic ih hminsinnak theih tambik mi cu a hlumte a daiaw panga kha a si. Cu
mi ih sullam cu Continent panga sungih um minung pawl ‘lungrualnak’ langtertu a a si
(Sakta le thlangta American hi Continent pakhat in kom a si ruangah). Thantar a rang
pi tlunih a hlum mi colour panga pawl cu – Mepian (blue), Aihre (Yellow), A dum
(black), A hring (green) le A sen (red) a si. Cu mi pawl cu Ram pakhat fingfing ih neihmi
thantar tlunih colour pakhat cio tel qheh dingin hrilmi a si.
Olympic ih Motto pi cu Latin qong in Citius, Antius, Fortius a si. A sullam cu
Zamrang sawn/deuh (faster), sangsawn/deuh (higher), caksawn/deuh (stronger) tinak a
si. Nunnak sungih a thupibikmi cu neh ding lawng siloin zuamqenqo ding a si bangtukin
Olympic lehnak ih thupibikmi cu nehnak laksawng ngah ding lawng siloin phur thei
mite phur ding (to take part) ti a si.
Thu suhnak
1. Olympic ih motto ziang a si?
*************************************
56
12. LOTHLAWH QHANSO DAN
Lothlawh qhanso dan ti ih thulu kan ret tikah ziangti vekin Lo kan thlo dingih
kan qhangso ding timi thu ah feh loin kan pumcawmawknak hrangih ti le rawl suahter
theinak hnaquan dan thu sawn ah kan feh ding. Mifim mithiam pawl in ti le rawl
suahter theinak hnaquan dan zoh in atu ah a sanruknak kan thleng thlang an ti. Cuih
san an qhendan kan zoh tlang ding.
1. Sankhatnak (Hunting and gathering Societies)
San thuanthu sungih ngankhum ih um hlan minung pawl cu hmun le hma khuar
in an um thiam lo. Hramlak ah an tawivaak vivo ih an hmuh an tonmi thingtheirah
khawlkhawm le an thattheimi ramsa pawl tla ei ih pumcawm aw san a si.
2. Sanhnihnak (Pastoral Societies)
Kum tampi a rei hnu ah minung pawl hmun le hma nei ih um hmun khuar tla an
thiam thlang. Cun, ei le in ding hrangah qilva zuat tla an thiam thlang. Qilva tampipi an
zuat thiam ih a phaw a hmul le a hnawi pawl tla an hmang thiam. Hramlak ih an kai
ngahmi ramsa pawl kha ngam ko in inn ah an zuat thiam.
3. Santhumnak (Horti cultural Societies)
Kum tampi a rei tikah minung pawl in ti le rawl hrangah ziangtiin ciciin thlaithlak
hna kan quan ding ti khua an hun ruat thiam. Lothlawhnak hrangih hman dingmi
thuamhnawh tete tlan an ser thiam. Ti le rawl tla suang ih ei-in an thiam. Hman
dingmi khokheng tla an ti thei patawp in an tuah an ser vivo.
4. Sanlinak (Agricultural Societies)
Lothlawh hnaquannak hrangah qilva thaa an hmang thiam thlang ruangah
hnaquannak thilri tla a qha mi le a hngetmi an ser ih thlairawl tampipi an suakter thei.
Innsang ei in hrang lawng si loin zuar ding tiangin thlairawl an nei thei thlang.
5. Sannganak (Industrial Societies)
Thir thawn cet a phunphun serthiamnak minung in fimnak a nei ih Lothlawhnak
cet tumpipi an tuah an ser tikah qilva thazaang thaw ih Lo thlawh hnakin a let tamtuk in
thlairawl a suah thei. Minung pakhat cet thawn lo a thlawhmi in midang a thawng a
thawng in a cawm thei thlang tikah mi tampi hnaquan dangdang ah an quan thei. Cutikah
thil suak a tam sinsin ih minung ih dinhmun khal a khaisang sinsin.
57
6. Sanruknak (Post-Industrial Society)
Mifim tampi in a saang zetzetmi (High-technology) thiamnak thawn thilri hman
ding a phunphun an tuah an ser tikah minung ai ah hnaquantu cet tla an tuah vingvo ih
minung ih thazaang a damter. Tha le zaang hnaquan hnak in thluak ih hnaquannak in
minung a nehkhuh sawn. Lothlawh thingphurh hnaquan lam thawn zoh tik khalah
phun dang zet in quan a si thlang ih minung dinhmun cu a khaisang nasa a si.
Thuruahkhawm ding:
1. Ziangmi san ah na um?
2. San a man timi cu ziang a si?
3. San man ve dingin ziang kan qul?
*************************
13 . THLAIRAWL TUAHQHATDAN
Mi qhenkhat cun an thlairawl kha innsung ah Cuam sung ah an ret. Mi qhenkhat
lala cun thlairawl khumnak inn a dangte in an sak ih an ret.
Thlairawl inn ih a zial cu leilung ihsin pi (3) tal a saang pei. Qhuam thlun in
Zinghnam kai thei hlah seh tiah Canphio in phit a qul. Leilung sungih phum dingmi
qhuam taw cu zinaan eek hnuh cia le a qha.
Thlairawl cuam sung ih khum hlan ah Ro ta seh tiah Ni sa ah maw tappi par ah
maw tidan dangdang tla hmangin phota a qul. Cutiin asilole thlairawl a muat dingih
harsatnak kan tong thei a si. Cun, Nget in ei rang hlah seh tiah a hawng, a kau thawn
khumcih le tla a qha.
1) THLAIRAWL NI SA IH PHODAN
Tangta bik ah hram a ro mi phah ding. Cuih hramro phahmi tlun ah plastic dum
(black colour) phah ding. Cuih plastic par ah thlairawl (Faang, Vainim tvp) paate in pho
ding. Cumi par ah plastic a raangmi (white colour) in khuh ding. A kil le a tlaang ah
lungto in maw thingtan in maw nen ding. Nazi (3) sung hibangtuk in pho le nget pawl
an thi dingih thlairawl a him ding.
Relkhawm ding:
* Hivek thlairawl phodan tuah a qul maw?
* Plastic cu ziang caan a daih pei? Kan phodan keel a qha sawn maw?
58
2) LEI BEEL SUNG IH RETDAN
Thlairawl nget hlah seh ti ah beel sungah vutcaam thawn rawi in kan ret qheu
nain a nget thotho qheu. Curuangah ngettu pangang pawl thi dingin tuah a qul. Nget
pawl thi thei dingah beel sungih Oksizin daat suah qheh a qul. Oksizin daat suah qheh
dingdan cu hi ti in a si
Beel khat deuh loin thlairawl than ding. Cule, Beel ka ih um thlairawl par ah
Phazawngdaing phun ih vaang ding. Oksizin daat a cem cun phazawngdaing mei khal
a mit ve ding. Oksizin daat a cem ruangah nget pawl khal an thi qheh ding.
Ruahkhawm ding:
* Nget thi dingin ziangtin kan tuah ding? (Tu ih tuahdan thlun tikah veikhat a sin ong le
oksizin daat cemter a qul ti ciing ringring ding).
3) THINGHNAH THINGRAH THAWN RETDAN
Thlairawl nget lo dingin thinghnah thingrah thawn ret a theih. Cuih thinghnah
cu NEEM (Azadirachta indica) timi le Cassia vine (Cassia nigricans) hnah tla an si. Hih
thinghnah pawl cu ro ko Ni sa ah pho ih thlairawl thawn rawi ih khumcih ding a si.
Aithing le makphek khal a vut in tuah ih thlairawl lakah ret le a qha ve. A dang pakhat
cu phazeti a zaing phun asilole a kha mi epal an hmang. A ‘SA’ khi ro car ih thlairawl lak
ih ret le a qha a si.
Ruahdingmi:
* Thingkung hrekkhat cu tur an nei ruangah hmang sual lo ding.
4) DIP THAWN THLAIRAWL RETDAN
Fifir ih siatsuah thei lo dingah dip thawn thlairawl ret hi a him bik. Miraang
leilung thawn tuahmi phar le zial hmang thei seh la a qha. Thlairawl zial thawn dai lo
dingin a tang ah thingtan ret ding. Dip ih phar dai khal a qha lo. Dip pakhat le pakhat
lak thli feh thei dingin ong tuah ding a si. Thlairawl dip zarh hnih sung nikhat veikhat
let qheu ding a si.
Relkhawm ding:
* Thlairawl humhim teih nei thei dingih kan tuah kan hmandan thu rel khawm cio
ding.
************************
59
CHIN (FALAM) CASIAR BU
LEVEL II (A)
©Copyright : Myanmar Council of Churches
All rights reserved: 2010
Number of copies : 2000
i
60
LUNGAWITHU
Kan Chin (Falam) calai hi tawkfang a thangsozomi a si. Acozah Tlawng qhat lai ih rak
zirmi Hramthok tlawngca khal Phunli tiang zir ding a rak um zo. Cun, Literacy program
in si seh, pawlkom dangdang pawl in si seh, bulpak ih calai duhtu le zuam hleice
pawl in si seh, Upa le Nauhak hrangih zir dingmi, Chin Qong zirnak cabu khal tampi
a rak suak zo.
Hi Literacy Program hi Myangmar Council of Churches (MCC) ih Advanced Literacy
Project in a rami a si. Hi project sungah a telmi Miphun pawl cu Kachin, Sagaw
Karen, Po Karen, le Chin (Hakha, Falam) tla an si. Miphun tampi lakah hi vek Project
sungih kan teltheinak hi Rev. Thang Tin Sum (Advanced Literacy Project Director, MCC)
ih miphun a duhdawtnak le zawn a ruahnak ruangah a si. A parah kan lung a awi ngaingai.
Tui’ qum ih suahmi Chin Casiar Bu hi Falam Baptist Pawlkom in Inntek quanvo la in
tawlrelmi a si ih zirdingmi ca pawl cu Lailak Tlawngta, phunsarih le phungriat pawl ih
zir ding tawkzawn ih tuahmi a si. Hi Cabu hi Phunsarih thawn a zawnawmi zirnak
cabu a si ruangah Level II (A) ti a si. A zirdan ding cu Tlawng ah zirter a theih lo ding
ruangah qhal tlawngpih caan ih zir thei dingin tawlrelmi a si.
Hi casiar bu sungah qhenpi qhenthum a um. Cu pawl cu Qong thu pawl, Nunphung thu
pawl, le Cawntlak Fimsimtu thu pawl tla an si. Hi cabu cangsuak thei dingih a sung um
thu burkhawmtu pawl parah kan lung a awi ngaingai.
Khar Thuan
Falam Project Co-ordinator
Toungphila, Kalay
ii
6ii1i
A SUNG UMMI THU PAWL
Thuhmaihruai .. ... ii
A sung um thu pawl .. ... iii
QHENKHATNAK: QONG LAM THU ... ... 1
1. Khihhmuhtu (Post-Position) .. ... 1
2. Pehzomtu (Conjunction) .. ... 4
3. Thinqhawngtu (Interjection) .. ... 5
4. Kimtertu .. ... 5
5. Cangan Colh Le Hminsinnak .. ... 7
QHENHNIHNAK: NUNPHUNG ... ... 9
1. Khua Kaidan .. ... 9
2. Zawltling Le Ngambawm .. ... 10
3. Nunzia Mawi .. ... 11
4. Pipu Qongfim .. ... 12
5. Qongkhun( I-P) .. ... 16
6. Bawivung, Khuanghla, Fangza Hla .. ... 18
7. Biazai: Hoithlat Lairam .. ... 23
8. Lai Lehnak .. ... 24
9. Lai Thupolh .. ... 25
10. Conlam Thu .. ... 16
11. Nithla Siardan Le A thutawi .. ... 28
12. Thil Tahdan .. ... 29
6iv2
QHENHUMNAK: CAWNTLAK FIM SIMTU ... ... 31
1. Chin Ramqhen Ukawknak Pengqhen Pakua Pawl Thuhla ... 31
2. Leitlun San Thuanthu .. ... 38
3. Chin Ram Hmun Hleice Pawl .. ... 40
4. Harhdamnak .. ... 42
5. Thuthanglam Thiamnak .. ... 44
6. Leilungpi Fatetternak (Globalization) .. ... 46
7. Chin Milangsar Pawl .. ... 47
8. Leitlun Milangsar Pawl .. ... 50
9. Gender: Gender Stereotyping .. ... 53
10. Kiangkap Thu (Ecology) .. ... 54
11. Olympic .. ... 55
12. Lothlawh Qhansodan .. ... 56
13. Thlairawl Tuahqhatdan .. ... 57
Ċ
Hre Mang,
Feb 2, 2011, 6:13 PM
Comments